One change in colonial policy by the British government that helped precipitate the American Revolution involved:
compelling the American colonists to shoulder some of the financial costs of the empire.
When it came to the Revolution, it could be said that the American colonists were:
In a broad sense, America was:
a revolutionary force from the day of its discovery by Europeans.
The American colonial exponents of republicanism argued that a just society depends on
the willingness of all citizens to subordinate their private interests to the common good.
Republican belief held that the stability of society and the authority of the government
depended upon the virtue of its citizenry.
The "radical whigs" feared
the arbitrary power of the monarchy.
Mercantilists believed that
a country's economic wealth could be measured by the amount of gold and silver in its treasury.
The founding of the American colonies by the British was
undertaken in a haphazard manner.
Under mercantilist doctrine, the American colonies were expected to do all of the following except
become economically self-sufficient as soon as possible.
The first Navigation Laws were designed to
eliminate Dutch shippers from the American carrying trade.
The British Parliament enacted currency legislation that was intended primarily to benefit
The British Crown's "royal veto" of colonial legislation
restrained colonies from printing paper currency.
Under the mercantilist system, the British government reserved the right to do all of the following regarding the American colonies except
prevent the colonies from developing militias.
Before 1763, the Navigation Laws
were only loosely enforced in the American colonies.
Despite the benefits of the mercantile system, the American colonists disliked it because
they found it debasing.
In some ways, the Navigation Laws were a burden to certain colonists because
they stifled economic initiative.
A new relationship between Britain and its American colonies was initiated in 1763 when assumed charge of colonial policy.
The first law ever passed by Parliament for raising tax revenues in the colonies for the crown
generated the most protest in the colonies.
asserted Parliament's absolute power over the colonies
The British Parliament passed the Stamp Act to
raise money to support new military forces needed for colonial defense.
Passage of the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act
convinced many colonists that the British were trying to take away their historic liberty.
Unlike the __________Act, the ______Act and the ________Act were both indirect taxes on trade goods arriving in American ports.
Stamp, Sugar, Townshend
Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) Sugar Act, (B) Declaratory Act, (C) Stamp Act, (D) repeal of the Stamp Act.
A, C, D, B
(Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Repeal of Stamp Act, Declaratory Act)
Colonists objected to the Stamp Act because
Parliament passed the tax, not the colonists.
When colonists shouted "No taxation without representation," they were rejecting Parliament's power to
levy revenue-raising taxes on the colonies.
Actions taken by the colonists that helped them unite include
a. the Stamp Act Congress.
b. nonimportation agreements.
c. spinning bees.
d. the making and wearing of homemade woolen goods.
e. all of the above.
E is correct, but you should know them all!
"Virtual" representation meant that
every member of Parliament represented all British subjects.
Colonial protest against the Stamp Act took the form of
a. convening a colonial congress to request repeal of the act.
b. a colonial boycott against British goods.
c. violence in several colonial towns.
d. wearing homemade woolen clothes.
e. all of the above.
E is correct, but you should know them all!
As a result of American opposition to the Townshend Acts,
British officials sent regiments of troops to Boston to restore law and order.
The colonists took the Townshend Acts less seriously than the Stamp Act because
it was light and indirect.
Arrange these events in chronological order: (A) Boston Massacre,(B) Townshend Acts, (C) Tea Act, (D) Intolerable Acts
B, A, C, D
(Townshend Acts, Boston Massacre, Tea Act, Intolerable Acts)
a pamphleteer who first organized committees to exchange ideas and information on resisting British policy
a Massachusetts politician who opposed the moderates' solution to the imperial crisis at the First Continental Congress
a casualty of the Boston Massacre
The tax on tea was retained when the Townshend Acts were repealed beca
it kept alive the principle of parliamentary taxation.
The local committees of correspondence organized by Samuel Adams
kept opposition to the British alive, through exchange of propaganda.
Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) clash at Lexington and Concord, (B) meeting of the First Continental Congress, (C) Quebec Act, (D) Boston Tea Party.
D, C, B, A
(Boston Tea Party, Quebec Act, Meeting of the First Continental Congress, Clash at Lexington and Concord)
When Parliament passed the Tea Act, colonists
suspected that it was a trick to get them to violate their principle of "No taxation without representation."
The Boston Tea Party of 1773 was
not the only such protest to occur.
The most drastic measure of the Intolerable Acts was the
Boston Port Act.
The Quebec Act
denied Quebec a representative assembly.
The Quebec Act was especially unpopular in the American colonies because it did all of the following except
affect many colonies, not just Massachusetts.
The First Continental Congress was called in order to
consider ways of redressing colonial grievances.
The First Continental Congress
adopted a moderate proposal for establishing a kind of home rule for the colonies under British direction.
As a result of Parliament's rejection of the petitions of the Continental Congress,
fighting and bloodshed took place, and war began.
As the War for Independence began, Britain had the advantage of
overwhelming national wealth and naval power.
All of the following were weaknesses of the British military during the War for Independence except
soldiers who were incapable of fighting effectively.
Many Whigs in Britain hoped for an American victory in the War for Independence because they
feared that if George III triumphed, his rule at home might become tyrannical.
As the War for Independence began, the colonies had the advantage of
many outstanding civil and military leaders.
The colonists faced all of the following weaknesses in the War for Independence except
the use of numerous European officers.
By the end of the War for Independence,
a few thousand American regular troops were finally whipped into shape.
African Americans during the Revolutionary War
fought for both the Americans and the British.
Regarding American independence,
only a select minority supported independence with selfless devotion.
"Varying Viewpoints" notes that the most influential view of the American Revolution currently holds that
fear of losing their liberty drove the colonists to war.
As noted in "Varying Viewpoints," historians since the 1960s have interpreted the Revolutionary struggle as
one in which economic concerns played a crucial role.
Bolded Info: Colonists in America, without influence from superiors, felt that they were fundamentally different from England, and more independent. Many began to think of themselves as Americans.
Bolded Info:The Navigation Laws were the most famous of the laws to enforce mercantilism. The first of these was enacted in 1650, and was aimed at rival Dutch shippers who were elbowing their way into the American carrying trade. The Navigation Laws restricted commerce from the colonies to England (and back) to only English ships, and none other.
Bolded Info: John Hancock amassed a fortune through smuggling.
Bolded Info: Americans had unusual opportunities for self-government. Americans also had the mightiest army in the world, and didn't have to pay for it. After independence, the U.S. had to pay for a tiny army and navy. Basically, the Americans had it made: even repressive laws weren't enforced much, and the average American benefited much more than the average Englishman.
Bolded Info:1. However, after Britain started to enforce mercantilism in 1763, the fuse for the American Revolution was lit. Disadvantages = Americans couldn't buy, sell, ship, or manufacture under the most favorable conditions for them. The South, which produced crops that weren't grown in England, was preferred over the North. Virginia, which grew just tobacco, was at the mercy of the British buyers, who often paid very low and were responsible for putting many planters into debt. Many colonists felt that Britain was just milking her colonies for all their worth.
Bolded Info: 7. Americans denied the right of Parliament to tax Americans, since no Americans were seated in Parliament. Americans rejected "virtual representation," and in truth didn't really want representation because that wouldn't have done them good, and if they had really had representation, there wouldn't be a principle for which to rebel.
Bolded Info: Townshend Acts in 1767.They put light taxes on white lead, paper, paint, and tea.
Bolded Info: In Philadelphia, from September 5th to October 26th, 1774, the First Continental Congress met to discuss problems. While not wanting independence then, it did come up with a list of grievances, which were ignored in Parliament. Only Georgia didn't have a representative there.
Also, they came up with a Declaration of Rights. They called for a complete boycott of British goods. They agreed to meet again in 1775 (the next year) if nothing happened.
Bolded Info: British Strength =
7.5 million people to America's 2 million, superior naval power, great wealth. Some 30,000 Hessians (German mercenaries) were also hired by George III, in addition to a professional army of about 50,000 men, plus about 50,000 American loyalists and many Native Americans. However, Britain still had Ireland (used up troops) and France was just waiting to stab Britain in the back;
a.Many Brits had no desire to kill their American cousins.
Bolded Info: British Weaknesses =
English Whigs at first supported America, as opposed to Lord North's Tory Whigs, and they felt that if George III won, then his rule of England might become tyrannical. Britain's generals were second-rate, and its men were brutally treated, Provisions were often scarce, plus Britain was fighting a war some 3000 miles away from home, America was also expansive, and there was no single capital to capture and therefore cripple the country.
Bolded Info: American Advantages=
Americans had great leaders like George Washington (giant general), and Ben Franklin (smooth diplomat).They also had French aid (indirect), as the French provided the Americans with guns, supplies, gunpowder, etc. Marquis de Lafayette, at age 19, was made a major general in the colonial army.The colonials were fighting in a defensive way, and they were self-sustaining.
They were better marksmen.
Bolded Info: American Disadvantages
Americans were terribly lacking in unity.Jealousy was prevalent, as colonies resented the Continental Congress' attempt at exercising power.
Sectional jealousy boiled up over the appointment of military leaders; some New Englanders almost preferred British officers to Americans from other colonies. Inflation also hit families of soldiers hard, and made many people poor.