Am Lit Exam 1
|How did the Greeks think about history?||Cyclical - seasons|
|How did the Puritans think about history?||Linear - beginning and end|
|All of history is end directed - when Christ returns.||Teleology|
|Who wrote the narrative about the journey to and settlement of America?||William Bradford|
|Of Plymouth Plantation||William Bradford|
|Why would Puritans want to write a history?|| 1. So we don't forget it.|
2. Exercise of self definition (who are we?).
3. To keep people from falling away.
|What view did the Puritans hold about Providence?||Providence as revelation - you can identify the moment you knew it was God's will.|
|What is an example of God's providence as revelation in Bradford's writing?||The young hauty seaman who taunted lowly believers in their sickness and ends up dying of illness himself and being the first to be thrown overboard.|
|What is characteristic of the Puritans time in the New World in Bradford's writing?||Hardship - no friends, no inns, no houses, no towns|
|How is loneliness a unique American experience?|| 1. Individualism|
2. Puritans belived in a personal relationship to God - focuses on the individual
|What is Bradford's view of the Indians?|| Savages|
-inferior and prior
-"proud and insulting enemy"
-in league with Satan - demons
-not something that would be approved by God
|What changed the view of the coloners towards the Indians?||Romanticism|
|What kind of influences were on Bradford's writings?|| 1. King James Bible - direct spiritual references - Mount Pisgah, spying out the land|
2. Classical References
|What is the number one comparison Bradford makes to the Puritans?|| The Israelites|
1. King of England/Holland --> Pharoah
2. Atlantic Ocean --> Red Sea
3. America --> Promised Land
therefore, Americans are the chosen people
|What does the American Eagle represent?|| one wing - Judeo Christian worldview|
other wing - European Enlightenment
|What is Typology?||The way the Puritans thought - the type can be found in the OT and the anti-type in the NT|
|Give a Typology example:|| Jonah in the whale 3 days (type - OT)|
Jesus in the grace 3 days (type - NT)
|Who's book was published without the author's knowledge?||Anne Bradstreet|
|What is the dominant metaphor in Anne Bradstreet's poetry?||Childbirth|
|the term that describes 1)the thing, and 2) the words||Res / Verba|
|Who wrote "The Prologue"?||Anne Bradstreet|
|What are some of the topics addressed in Anne Bradstreet's "The Prologue"?|| 1. humility|
2. simple topics
3. accepts that nature has not gifted her too much
4. place of woman in world of poetry
|image or representative||Allegory|
|OT references to NT examples||Typology|
|The symbols of the world - raw material points to God - world around us is already a symbol.||Symbology|
|Worshipping the world:||Idology|
|What were some of the distinctive themes of Bradstreet that separated her from traditional Puritan thinking?|| 1. notices natural beauty - no comtempt for the world|
2. almost worships the sun
3. she doesn't idolize her children - realizes they have different temperments
|Who is America's metaphysical poet?||Edward Taylor|
|What two books did Taylor believe in?|| 1. Word of God|
2. World around us
|The Ebb and Flow||Edward Taylor|
|A fanciful image, an elaborate metaphor in which a writer describes a person or idea by use of an analogy which often seems farfetched and even startling.||Conceit|
|Who primarily uses conceit in his poetry?||Edward Taylor|
|What is the main image in "Ebb and Flow"?||tinder box - God starting a fire in him|
|Summarize Meditation One by Taylor:||Infinite - God's love - unable to grasp - heaven can't contain it - "Matchless love" is incomparable - it overcame death and the grave - "Oh! that thy love might overflow my heart!"|
|Summarize Meditation Siz by Taylor:|| main metaphor: coin-making|
question: is he one of the elect?
|Puritans were against sex.||False|
|Puritans never laughed and were opposed to fun.||False|
|Puritans wore drab, unfashioned clothes.||False|
|Puritans were opposed to sports and recreation.||False|
|Puritans were money-grubbing workaholics who would do anything to get rich.||False|
|Puritans were hostile to the arts.||Party true - Cromwell|
|Puritans were overly emotional and denigrated reason.||False - they always wanted balance|
|Puritanism was an old-fashioned movement that appealed only to people over seventy suffering from tired blood.||False|
|Puritans were repelled by the human body and the physical world.||False|
|Puritans were intolerant toward people who disagreed with them.||True - persecuted Quakers and burned witches|
|Puritans were overly strict.||True|
|The Puritans represented normal feelings in the name of religion.||T/F|
|Puritans were legalistic moralists who judged people by their external behavior only.||False|
|The Puritans indulged in too much self-loathing.||True - they were told to think humbly of themselves.|
|Puritans were ignorant people who opposed education.||False - founded Harvard College|
|What was Taylor preparing for in his "Meditations"?||Communion|
|What were some of the common writings of Puritans and why?|| Travel journals|
|The idea that only one person can save us - God.||Monogistic|
|T.U.L.I.P.|| Total depravity - we can do nothing to save ourselves|
Limited Atonement - Calvinism
Irrisistable Grace - If God chooses you, you cannot resist
Perseverence of the Saints - eternal security - once saved always saved
|What doctrine did the Puritans lack?||They lacked a solid doctrine of assurance. They did not believe in being saved to assurance of salvation, but hope of salvation.|
|Upon a Spider Catching a Fly||Edward Taylor|
|What is the main purpose of Jonathan Edwards' narrative?||To the Greater Glory of God|
|What influence did Locke have on Jonathan Edwards?||The idea that knowledge comes from experience, followed by reflection. Edwards uses the term "sense" dozens of times in his narrative - how he comes to "know" God.|
|What does Edwards think the world is dependent on?||God thinking it into being.|
|What is the style of a typical Puritan sermon?|| 1. text - definitions, info, etc|
2. doctrine - theology, moral content
|Fire and brimstone Puritan sermons were called:||Jerimiad|
|One of the tools Edwards utilizes and provides a lot of the power of the sermon:|| IMAGES|
-"sword of God's wrath"
-"devils are like greedy lions"
-"spider-web and rock"
|How did Edwards emphasize God's wrath in "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"?|| METAPHORS|
1. "arrow on bowstring"
2. "damned waters"
3. "crushed worm"
4. "lions are hungry"
|What is the text of the sermon "Sinners in the Hands of An Angry God"?||"Their foot shall slip in due time"|
|The Indian Burial Ground||Philip Freneau|
|The Wild Honey Suckle||Philip Freneau|
|What is Freneau's view of the Indians portrayed in "The Indian Burial Ground"?|| -sympathetic|
-ex: asserts that how they bury their dead is right for them
-"the children of the forrest play" (line 28)
-calls for reverence towards indian culture
|What is the main idea of Freneau's "The Wild Honey Suckle"?|| 1. Reverence for Eden - unbroken, unhindered by fall of man.|
2. "Busy hands" refers to hands that took the fruit in the garden.
3. He may have challenged the after life, mentioning the cycle of the flower.
|Why did Puritanism encourage the biography?|| -introspection|
-able to give an account
-a way to trace Puritan history
|What two types of "calling" were introduced by the Puritans?|| 1. general - call to the kingdom of God|
2. specific - job
|What is the main characteristic of Benjamin Franklin's autobiography?||Proud/Arrogant/Vain|
|What makes Franklin's autobiography different than that of the Puritans?||He wrote it to instruct others - The Puritans didn't believe you could know how God would work in someone's life and therefore their personal narratives couldn't benefit anyone in their walk.|
|What has replaced salvation in Ben Franklin's success story?||Happiness|
|What is considered the primary way of worshipping God in the mind of Benjamin Franklin?||being a good neighbor - "deeds vs. creeds"|
|What term is used by Franklin in his narrative to describe sin/mistakes?|| "errata" - meaning typo/mistake|
Franklin wanted to fix his mistakes to be a better person.
|What was Franklin's view on human nature?|| That it is malleable - not fixed. |
If we change our outward life it will eventually change inwardly.
|What metaphor does Franklin use to describe his attempt at perfecting himself?||The speckled Ax.|
|What 4 works of Literature influenced Franklin in his time?|| 1. Conduct Book|
2. Character Book
3. Promotional Book
4. Life & Times Biography