a FEATURE of an organism CREATED by the process of natural selection.
ex: height in humans, birthweight
phenotypic variation in which there are a discrete number of phenotypes with no intermediate types. Ex: pea color in Mendel's experiment
selection pressuresd that favor average phenotypes. Stabilizing sleection reduces the amount of variation in the population but doesn't alter the mean value of the trait.
where a single phenotype is favored, causing the allele frequency to continuously shift in one direction
driving force behind sympatric speciation extreme values for a trait are favored over intermediate values. E.g.: large nose rather than medium sized nose
refers to cells that have pairs of homologous chromosomes, where one chromosome of each pair is inherited from each parent. All primates are diploid
a diploid organism whose chromosomes have two copies of the SAME allele. Opposite of heterozygous
the genetic makeup of a trait
the shown trait
two-step process in speciation where selection causes the differentiation of geographically separate, isolated populations of a species and the populations become reproductively isolated as well
carries genes and appears during cell division
structural similarities derived from two species with independent ancestors. Eg. a bat's wing and a human's hands
the process that produces adaptation
the process of division of normal body cells through which new diploid cells are created
the process of cell division in which haploid gametes (eggs and sperm) are creatred
the form and structure of an organism
genes that influence multiple traits
evolution of populations within a species
evolution of new species, families, and higher taxes
a spontaneous change in the chemical structure of DNA
a hypothesis that speciation can result from selective pressures favoring different phenotypes within a population without geographic isolation as a factor
the result of competition between two species that causes the members of different species to become morphologically or behaviorally more different from each other
one of two or more alternative forms of a gene
a relationship between two populations in which there is no gene flow between them
a steady state in which two or more alleles coexist in a population.
occurs when a new colony is started by a few peope from the original population. Not much diversity, usually mutations.
occurs when a population endures a natural disaster and alleles are greatly reduced in diversity
opposite of punctuated equilibrium
where there are specific, extreme changes in evolution. Like a square like tree
speciation that occurs when two or more populations of a single species are geographically isolated from each other and then diverge to form two or more new species
the evolutionary relationships among a group of species. diagrammed as a family tree
the process in which a single lineage diversifies into a number of species
genes are carried on
what's a nucleotide composed of?
a phosphate-sugar base
What are the differences between DNA and RNA
DNA is double stranded while RNA is single stranded, DNA has only a nucleus but RNA can have a nucleus or a cytoplasm, the main ingredient in DNA is Thymine while in RNA it's Uracil.
the change in frequency of a gene do to randomness
the transfer of alleles of genes from one population to another
where two somewhat related species eventually form a new species
a gradual transformation of one species to another