the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or a person's disposition.
Fundamental Attribution Error
the tendency for observers when analyzing another's behavior to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of personal disposition
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose our reactions to objects, people and events. Effects behavior
Central Route Persuasion
occurs when interested people focus on arguments and respond with favorable thoughts. More likely to influence behavior
Peripheral Route Persuasion
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness
the tendency for people who agree to a small action to comply later with a larger one
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the positino ought to behave.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistant.
adjusting our behavior or thinking toward some group standard
Normative Social Influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disappointment.
Informal Social Influence
influnce resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions on reality.
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others. ex) play better when people are watching
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their effortstoward attaining a common goal then when individually accountable.
the loss of self-awareness and self restraint occuring in a group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussions within the group
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making groups overrides a realistic oppraisal of alternatives.
power of the situatino interacts with the power of the individual
power of the individual
an unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and it's members
a generalized belief about a group of people
unjustifiable negative behavior towrd a group of people
Implicit Racial Associations
associating words that sound black or white with good or bad respectively
giving harsher criticisms when said to be a black person more so than white
Racist Influenced Perceptions
More likely to shoot someone if they are black than if they are white
person's features are percieved as typical of their racial category
Reflexive Body Responses
if people consciously express little prejudice; may give off telltale signals as their body responds selectively to another race.
Associate ourselves with certain groups and contrast ourselves with others.
"us" people with whom we share a common identity
"them" those percieved as different or apart from our group
a tendency to favor one's own group. created by making an "us-them" distinction
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
The other-race effect
the tendency to recall faces of one's own radce more accurately than faces of other races.
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
blaming the victim serves to reassure people it can't happen to them.
The principle that frustration creates anger, which can generate agression
the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal
brought down re-arrest rates of juvenile offenders and gang members by teaching the youths and their parents communication skills
sexually explicit and sexually violent materials
mental tapes for how to act provided by our culture
the unselfish regard for the welfare of others
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
Social Exchange Theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange proces, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them
a percieved incompability of actions, goals, or ideas
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
Mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
a fearsome extent threat and a superordinate desire to overcome it.
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension: a strategy designed to decrease international tensions
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to stimuli increases the liking of them.
reward theory of attraction
that we will like those whose behavior is rewarding to us and that will we continue relationships that offer more rewards than costs.
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
a condition in which people recieve from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others