Anatomy exam 1. Loesser (tissues)

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4 types of tissues

epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous

epithelial layer (7)

covers all surfaces
BM
nutrition by diffusion
reproduces readily
protective by dense packing
secretion, excretion, absorption, sensory reception
composed entirely of cells

types of epithelial tissue (3 simple)

simple squamous
simple cuboidal
simple columnar

types of epithelial tissue (5 stratified)

stratified cuboidal- 3 or 4 layers thick
stratified squamous
stratified columnar
transitional- puffs out
pseudostratified columnar- has cilia

simple squamous location/function

location: mesothelia lining ventral body cavities, endothelia lining heart and blood vessels, kidney tubules, inner lining of cornea, alveoli
function: friction, permiability, absorption and secretion

stratified squamous location/function

location: skin, mouth, throat, rectum, anus, vagina
function: protects against abrasion, pathogens, chemical attacks

simple cuboidal location/function

location: glands, ducts, kidney tubules, thyroid
function: limited protection, secretion, absorption

stratified cuboidal location/function

location: some ducts (rare)
function: protection, secretion, absorption

transitional location/function

location: urinary bladder
function: stretching

simple columnar location/function

location: stomach, intestines, gallbladder, uterine tubes, collecting ducts of kidneys
function: protect, secrete, absorb

pseudostratified columnar location/function

location: nasal cavity, bronchii, male repro. trachea
function: protection, secretion

stratified columnar location/function

location: pharynx, epiglottis, anus, mammary glands, salivary ducts, urethra
function: protection

3 connective tissue components

specialized cells
extracellular fibers
ground substance

CT specialized cells

Resident cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, adipose cells
wandering cells: white blood cells, mast cells

CT extracellular fibers

produced by fibroblasts
callagenous
elastic- makes things stretchy
reticular- smaller branched cells

CT ground matrix

fibers and ground substance

CT functional characteristics (7)

most abundant by weight
binds with ligaments and cartilage
support to bones
stores fat
bones produce blood cells
WBC's fight infection
reproduce

types of Connective tissue (7)

blood
loose (areolar)
adipose
dense (regular & irregular)
cartilage
bone
reticular

CT: blood (hint: types)

plasma (liquid portion of blood), RBC, WBC, platelets

CT: loose (areolar) location/function

location: deep in dermis covered by epith. lining of digestive, respiratory and urinary. between lungs, around blood vessels, nerves, and joints
function: binds skin to underlying organs, fills spaces
mostly fibroblasts, vascular

CT: adipose (fat) location/function

location: beneath skin
function: cushion, stores energy

CT: elastic location/function

location: between vertebrae, ligaments supporting pelvis, walls of blood vessels
function: stabalize position of spine and pelvis, cushions shocks, allow expansion/recoil

CT: dense (regular & irregular)

dense, closely pack fibers, few cells
poor blood supply
tendons & ligaments (regular)
coverings & capsules (irregular)

CT: dense irregular location/function

location: capsules of visceral organs, dermis of skin, nerve and muscle sheaths
function: provides strength to resist force applied from many directions, prevents overexpansion of organs (bladder)

CT: dense regular location/function

location: between skeleton and skeletal muscles, between bones (ligaments), covering skeletal muscles
function: firm attachment, reduce friction between muscles, stabalizes relative position of bones

CT: Bone (6)

lots of collagen and minerals
support
produces blood cells
stores inorganic salts
osteocytes and canniculi
great blood supply

CT: reticular + location/function

location: liver, kidney, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow
function: forms stroma of many organs
stroma: support structure inside organ that support cells

filled with fibroblasts, macrophages, reticular fibers

muscle tissue characteristics

cells are contractile
causes body parts to move
3 types: skeletal, smooth, cardiac

skeletal muscle

voluntary movement
muscle cell = fibers
multinucleated cells
straited
satelite cells- grow new skeletal muscle

smooth muscle

involuntary
single nucleus - no fusion of cells
moves food, empties bladder, constrict blood vessels
unstriated
has actin and myosin

cardiac muscle

involuntary
striated
single nucleus- no fusion of cells
intercalated discs

nervous tissue

found in brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves
neurons
neuroglia - supporting cell (non-exciteable)
sensitive to surrounding, transmits impulses

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