Plessy vs. Ferguson
(1896) Land mark case. Supreme Court rules that the Civil Rights Bill is unconstitutional. Rule in favor of legal segregation. "Seperate but equal."
(1910-1940) Huge wave of African Americans (2 million, mainly young, unskilled men) leave Southern states to move north. Settle in large cities such as New York, Chicago, Buffalo, Detriot and Cleveland.
Reasons for the Great Migration
European immagration declines (WW1); wars create a boom in production, creating lots of labour opportunities; create a better life, as a factory worker, blacks made more money then they did working on plantations
(National Assosiation for the Advancement of Colored People) Founded in 1909 By W.E.B. Dubois. Focused on legal side of racial discrimination.
Booker T. Washington
Former slave. Give a little to get a little. Cooperation, not confrontation. **Atlanta Compromise
Harvard Grad. Complain, do not comply. Agitate the white man until you get what you want. **Founded NAACP
Brown Vs. Board
(1954, Topeka, Kansas) Linda Brown wants to go to an all white school. Has the backing of the NAACP, lawyer is Thurgood Marshall. They challenged the supreme court's ruling in the Plessy vs. Ferguson case and won. Earl Warren was the Judge.
Souther Manifesto and Citizen's Council
(March 1955) 100 congressmen from the south get a petition from all of the Southern states to rule against the Brown vs. Board case. This group used economics as a way to keep segregation of schools possible.
(August, 1955) Chicago Boy, 14 years old. Visiting family in Mississippi. At candy Store, Emmet says "Bye, baby," to the girl at the counter. Emmet is brutally murdered by 2 brothers, who confess to the crime and are aquitted.
(December 1st, 1955, Montgomery, Alabama) Refused to give her seat to a white man, was arrested and fined $10.00. Leads to the Montgomery Bus Boycott, which is Led by Martin Luther King Jr.. Boycott lasted one year until Montgomery Bus system gave in, ending segregation on public transit.
(Southern Christian Leadership Confrence) Founded by Baptist Minister Martin Luther King Jr.. Approach to creating equality was non-violent, civil disobedience (sit-ins). The point was to deliberately break a law to show the injustice of it.
March on Washington
(August, 1963) Martin Luther King Jr. gives his "I Have a Dream" speach. Deos this to embarass JFK, push him to take action. Led to the Civil Rights Bill.
Civil Rights Bill
(1964) Prohibits any form of segregation, fedrally prosecute states that promote discrimination, affirmative action to force opportunities, cut off fedral funding to any state that supports segregation.
High Water Mark
(1965) Media attention turns to Vietnam. Progress is very slow, incidences of violence that cannot be ignored (Brimingham bombing kills 4 girls). Splinter Groups are created, destroying Black unity.
Nation of Islam
Led by Malcom X. Religious Angle. *Seperate, Self-Governed, Self-Defence*. Fight back, but don't start fights. White people are evil. Work hard, don't look for handouts from the white man, we don't need his help.
(Student Non-Violent Co-ordinating Committy) Led by Stokely Carmichael in 1967. Economic Angle. *Black Power*. Help out your brother, keep the money in the family, boycott white bussiness..
(California, 1966) Created by Heuy Newton and Bobby Seale. Military angle (Black liberation Army). Black man needs to arm himself; look for a fight. *Black is beautiful* Affros, black clothing, music and food. Black Pride.