GACS lclab World History - Unit 3 - The Greeks and Hellenistic Age-Class Notes

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GACS lclab World History - Unit 3 - The Greeks and Hellenistic Age-Class Notes

Balkan Peninsula

Greece is located at the end of the ______________ and included many islands.

Mediterranean Sea

Greece is surrounded by the ________________ which provided the ability for great trading.

mountains

The many _____________forced the Greeks to develop separate communities.

hot summers and mild winters

True about the climate of Greece

short summers and severe winters

False about the climate of Greece

fishers and sailors

Because Greece has such a long coastline, most people were ____________________.

Crete

Greek civilization began in the island of _____________ and lived a a civilized lifestyle before 1500 BC.

Minoans

Early Greeks were known as _______________.

Minos

legendary first king of Crete

Knossos

Capital city of on the island of Crete

writing

Minoans created a system of __________________.

frescoes

Knossos was famous for the ancient ruins of paintings on wet plasted known as__________________

Navy

Minoans were excellent sailors and had the first ____________.

bull, bull leaping

Minoans worshipped the ___________ and considered ________________entertainment.

Minotaur

mythical half-man and half-bull

Mycenae

oldest city on Greek mainland

Mycenaens

Minoans were conquested around 1500 by Greek warriors from the mainland known as ___________________.

Cretan

After the Mycenaens conquered the Cretan's they adopted a _____________culture.

Illiad and Odyssey

epic poems written by later Greeks that helped us learn alot about the Mycenaean's

Homer

legendary ancient Greek blind poet, the author of the epic poems the Illian and the Odyssey; his stories were the first ever writtend down

Iliad

epic poem about kidnapping of a Greek princess, Helen of Troy, by a Trojan prince, Paris - started a 10-year war between the Greeks and the Trojans

Odyssey

describes the journey of one of the victorious Greek generals who spends the next 10 years trying to get home

Dorians

In 1200 BC the Mycenaean's were conquered by Greeks from the north called the ________________.

Dark Ages

When the Dorians took over, this period in Greece became known as the ______________because they could not read or write

Phoenicians

Around 750 BC the ____________introduced the alphabet to the Dorians

city-states

Around the time the Dorians took over Greece, __________ were introduced and began to dominate.

monarchy

the Greek government for city-states was a _______________ from 1,000 BC to 700 BC

aristocracy

the Greek government for city-states was a _______________ from 700 BC where the nobility controlled the city-states; ruled by upper class land owners.

tyranny

From 650 BC to 500BC the Greek government for city-states ruled by _______________ - individuals who took over by force; sometimes they were good, sometimes harsh

democracy

After 500 BC, many city-states turned to popular government of _______________ or "rule by the people"

Dracos

tyrant of Athens famous for cruelty

Hellene

Greek were also known as ____________a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions

Hellas

Greek was also known as ____________.

Hellenistic

means "like the Greeks"

barbarian

Anyone who did not speak Greek, was considered a _______________.

polis

city-state in Greece; like a separate country; had own government

tragedy

plays written by Greeks in which the main characters struggle against fate

acropolis

each city-state had an ________________ where their fort was; it was a hill with public buildings

helots

conquered and forced to be Sparta slaves

luxurious

Sparta had helots but tended to avoid a ___________ style of living

Sparta

had an elected assembly, two ceremonial kings but government was controlled by ephors

ephors

Sparta had an elected assembly and two ceremonial kings but government was ruled by overseers called _____________.

Athens

most populated city with over 300,000 citizens

slaves

___________outnumbered citizens in Sparta

xenophobic

irrational fear of foreigners; because of this, Spartans did not travel and visitors were not welcome

military

Spartan men were expected to be part of the efficient ______________and ate with the other men in mess halls instead of with their families

exposure

unhealthy babies were left to die of __________________.

military training

________________of boys began at the age of 7 and men served from 20-60

True about Spartan women

Spartan women had more freedom then Greeks in other cities but were expected to be equally tough as men

False about Spartan women

Spartan women had less freedom then Greeks in other cities but were expected to be weaker than men

Sparta women

__________________took control of the city when the men were gone.

individual freedom

In Sparta _______________was sacrificed for the state

betrayal or treason

_________________was unheard of among Spartans

True about Spartans

They produced no great literature, art or science because everything was focused on military control

False about Spartans

They produced great literature, art and science

laconic

expressing much in few words; original meaning of this word referred to the people of Sparta

Xenophon

A Greek historian who said, "the most extraordinary thing of all is that despite the universal praise for Sparta's society, not a single city is willing to copy it."

True about the remains of Sparta

Very little remains of Sparta or Spartan civilization today

False about the remains of Sparta

There are many remains of Sparta or Spartan civilization today

Athens

was a city of trade and had much contact with other people.

True about Athens women

Athens women could have citizenship but could not participate in government or vote; were expected to be quiet and domestic.

False about Athens women

Athens women could not have citizenship but could participate in government or vote.

Metics

______________were free residence and were living and making money but could not participate in government.

assembly

By 510, all men over the age of 20 were members of the _______________.

female, slave or foreigner

Athens were very democratic unless you were a _________, ______________ or ________________.

men

All _____________voted on all issues in Athens.

jury

Athens held trial by _____________.

direct

Athens was a _____________democracy rather than an __________democracy.

protection

Athens had a military primarily for ____________rather than a way of life, as in Sparta.

naval

Athens was more of a _____________power than Sparta.

talk

Athenians loved to _________________.

Greece

Today Athens is the capital of ________________.

Persians

The Greeks fought the ______________ and then themselves.

Cyrus the Great

In 546 BC, _____________________built a began the Persian empire by defeating the _____________.

Ionia

The Greek colonies on the coast of ______________ refused to pay tribute or taxes to Persian so they rebelled.

Athenians

The _______________assisted Ionia in their rebellion against Persian.

Darius

_______________wanted to punish Athens, so he sent a massive army to Greece in 490 BC.

Battle of Marathon

A major battle outside of Athens.

part-time, citizen soldiers

Athenian army consisted primarily of ________________ who were protecting their home states.

Persians

After just a few hours of the Battle of Marathon, 6,400 ___________had died and only 192 Athenians.

Pheidippides

Ran 26 miles back to Athens with the good news of the Athens win over the Persians

Xeres

__________became the ruler of Persia after his father, Darius died

Battle of Thermopyle

In the ________________ 300 Spartans and 6,000 allies met 200,000 Persians

Spartans

All the ________________died in the Battle of Thermopyle but so did 20,000 Persians.

Salamis

Xeres finally got to Athens and found that the Athenians had moved to ________________.

Athenians

In 480 BC the _________________won the war against the Persians and become the superpower of Greece

Battle of Salamis

The _____________________started the Golden Age of Athens.

Pericles

The greatest Athenian leader of all time. Elected general for 16 years and led the city for 30 years

democratic

Athens was very ______________under the leadership of Pericles

equals

Athens did not treat other cities as ________________ which resulted in another war.

Peloponnesian War

War between Athens and Sparta that lasted 27 years.

Athens

In the Peloponnesian War, _______________had a great navy.

Sparta

In the Peloponnesian War, _______________had a great army.

plague

Sparta laid seige to Athens and a great ____________struck during the war.

Sparta

In 404 BC __________________defeated Athens with some assistance from the Persian.

Macedon

Sparta won the war, but could not defend itself from other Greek city-states and eventually ________________would rule Greece.

Socrates

Originally a sculpture but later become a teacher

philospher

Socrates would rather be called a ________________ than a sophits because he considered them deceitful, proud and "user of words"

absolute truth

Socrates believed in people thinking for themselves and using reason & logic to discover __________________.

sophists

_______________believed in relative truth - that truth can change depending on the the situation.

Socratic Method

taught by using questions - Jesus later would teach the same way

Know Yourself

famous saying of Socrates

democracy

Socrates criticized ________________because he believed the untrained were elected.

atheism

Socrates was put to trial because he was accused of _______________ and corrupting youth.

hemlock

Socrates was found guilty in his trial and chose to die by __________rather than be exiled.

Plato

scientist and philosopher who was a student of Socrates

dialogue

Plato recorded the thoughts of Socrates in ______________form.

The Republic

Plato's most famous work about an ideal government run by a trained class of philosopher kings

Metaphor of the Cave

One of the most famous stories of philosphy in the Western world; found in The Republic

ideals

Plato believed you could not know the truth in the real world, but in the world of _______________.

Aristotle

scientist, philospher and student of Plato

material world

Aristotle believed in finding truth in the ______________.

plants and animals

Aristotle classified _________________________.

politics

Aristotle wrote about logics and _________________.

Catholic church

Artistotle was considered an authority of life by the _______________ and was called the "Master".

Truth about the characteristics of Greek religion

Greek religion had no moral focus or salvation. There were no commandments or holy book.

False about the characteristics of Greek religion

Greek religion had a lot of moral focus and believed in salvation. Greeks had their own commandments and holy book.

True about Greek afterlife

Greeks were not concerned very much about life after death

False about Greek afterlife

Greeks were very concerned about life after death

Mount Olympus

Greek gods like on __________________.

polytheistic

many gods

Zeus

Father of the gods; Roman name was Jupiter

Hera

wife of Zeus and protector of women

Poseidon

god of the sea

Hades

god of the deaad

Athena

goddess of wisdom and warrior

Aphrodite

goddess of love and beauty

Apollo

god of the sun, music and poetry

Dionysus

god of wine

Olympics

The ________________were held in honor of Zeus and were held every four years and lasted five days

776 BC

The first Olympiad was held in this year

Heraea

Women had their own Olylmpics called _______________.

Doric, Ionic & Corinthian

columns used in Greek architecture

Doric

simple and favorite column used in Greek architecture

Ionic

column in Greek architecture that has "eyes" or scrolls

Corinthian

most elaborate column in Greek architecture; leafy design

Parthenon

best example of Greek architecture; temple for the goddess Athena

amphitheaters

________________were built in hill sides and were shaped as half circles

Roman

most of what we know about Greek painting and sculpting comes from descriptions and ___________copies

vases

Best preserved Greek art painting can be found on _______________.

Phidias

known for his great statues of Athena and Zues

Temple of Olympia

location of Phidias' statue of Zeus and and considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World

Greek art

___________________glorified the gods and humanity.

humanity

__________________was idealized - no blemishes

traits

________________represented things such as strength, intelligence, beauty, grace and courage.

city-states

Greeks showed pride in their ______________________ through their art.

ideals

Greeks expressed _________________of harmony, balance and order combined with beauty and usefulness.

write plays

Greeks were the first to __________________.

True about Greek plays

Only men were allowed to be actors and participate in plays.

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