Child & Adolescent Development

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1. Jessica believes that development takes place in stages, where children can change rapidly as they step up to a new level and then change very little for a while. Jessica views development as

discontinuous

2. In her research, Dr. Rosenblum expolores why she children develop differently from their outgoing age mates. Dr. Rosenblum most likely emphasizes ____ in her research

the role of distinct contexts

Charlene believes that her daughter's ability to think in complex ways is largely the result of an inborn timetable of growth. Charlenes view emphasizes

nature

Dr. Kudrow views development as open to change in response to influential experiences. Dr. Kudrow probably emphasizes

plasticity

According to research on resilience, which of the following children has an increased chance of offsetting the impact of a stressful home?

praise as a reward

All contemporary child development theories view children as

active, purposeful beings

The most consistent asset of resilient children is

a strong bond to a competent, caring adult

Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon's intelligence test was developed as a way to

identify children with learning problems who needed to be placed in special classes

The psychoanalytic perspective emphasizes

the unique history of each child

According to Freud, the ___ is the conscious, reational part of personality

ego

Erik Erikson was one of the first theorists to

recognize the lifespan nature of development

Every time 10-month-old Rita eats a pea, her father claps and says "Good GIRL!!" in response to her father's praise. Rita excitedly eats the remaining peass. Rita's behavior is an example of

operant conditioning

When John Watson taught Albert, an 11 month old infant to fear a neutral stimulus by presenting it several times with a sharp, loud sound, Watson applied ____ to children's behavior.

classical conditioning

Which of the following is true about social learning?

It emphasizes modeling, also known as imitation or observational learning, as a powerful source of development.

At home, Paul's parents hit him as a punishment for misbehavior. At preschool, Paul angrily hits a playmate who takes history. According to social learning theory, Paul is displaying

observational learning

On a few occasions, Jack's mother gave him candy to keep him quiet when she took him to the doctors office. Now every time Jack goes to the doctors office, he asks his mother for candy. This is an example of

operant conditioning

Which of the following is an example of behavior modification?

letting children with acute burn injuries play a virtual reality game while nurses engage in painful process of changing their bandages

According to Piaget's theory, in the sensorimotor stage, children

think by acting on the world with their eyes, ears, hands and mouth

Children can evaluate the logic of verbal statements without referring to real world circumstances in Piaget's ____ stage

formal operational

A classroom environment based on piagets theory of cognitive development would likely emphasize

discovery learning and direct contact with the environment

Development of language and make-believe play take place in piagets _____ stage

preoperational

In a research study, 10 year old Joe was given a pike of blocks varying in size, shape, and weight and was asked to build abridge over a "river" (painted on a floor map) that was too wide for any single block to span. The researcher carefully tracked Joe's efforts using a flowchart. The researcher was probably applying which recent theoretical perspective?

information processing

Observations of imprinting led to which of the following major concepts in child development?

Critical period

Dr. McMath is an evolutionary development psychologist. Which of the following is probably true about Dr. McMath?

He wants to understand the entire organinism- environment system

According to Vygotsky's theory

social interation is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community's culture

Which of the following behaviors is consistent with Vygotsky's theory?

Yesica, a child candy selller with no schooling, develops sophisticated mathematical abilities as a result of her work.

Dr. Brown observes behavior in a laboratory, where conditions are the same for all participants. This is an example of

a structured observation

Dr. Kempshell combines interview, observations, and test scores to obtain a full picture of one individual's psychological functioning. This is an example of

the clinical method

Dr. Newman spent three years in Botswana, participating in the daily life of a community there. She gathered extensive field notes, consisting of a mix of self reports from members of the community and her own observations. Which research method did Dr. Newman most likely use in her research?

Ethnography

Immigrant parents of successful youths typically

develop close ties to an ethnic community

A ___ permits inferences about cause and effect

experimental design

The independent variable is the one that

the investigator expects to cause changes in another variable

Dr. Kirk wants to study sibling relationships at differing ages. Dr. Kirk has children with one or more siblings in grade 3, 6,9 and 12 complete his questionnaire. This is an example of a ___ study

cross sectional

Sustained musical experiences, such as music lessons, can lead to

small increases in intelligence that do not arise from comparable drama lessons.

Directly observable characteristics are affected by an individual's lifelong history of experiences and also by the individual's

phenotype

Chromosomes

store and transmit genetic information

Individuals around the world are about _____ percent genetically identical.

99.1

______ halves the number of chromosomes normally present in body cells.

meiosis

Taylor's twenty-third pair of chromosomes is XY. Taylor

is male

Which of the following is a major cause of the dramatic rise in fraternal twinning in industrialized nations?

older maternal age

Which of the following is a recessive trait?

red hair

Sickle cell anemia

occurs in full form when a child inherits two recessive alleles

Which of the following serious diseases is due to dominant alleles?

Huntington's disease

Fragile X syndrome

is the most common inherited cause of mental retardation

The most frequently occurring form of down syndrome results from

a failure of the twenty-first pair of chromosomes to separate during meiosis

Mr. and Mrs. Sedgwick's child was diagnosed with Turner syndrome. Their child has a(n) _____ chromosome.

missing X

Mr. and Mrs. White are told that their son has the most common chromosomal disorder. The Whites' son has ____ syndrome.

Down

Angela and Tony's first child died in infancy. They badly want to have another child, but are worried about Angela's family history of genetic disorders. They want to find out if Angela is a carrier. Angela and Tony are candidates for:

genetic counseling

Which of the following is true about adoption?

In North America, the availability of healthy babies has declined.

Most adopted children

fare well and make rapid progress

Which of the fllowing is true about surrogate motherhood

It usually involves the wealthy as contractors for infants and less economically advantaged as surrogates.

Contemporary researchers view the family as

a network of interdependent relationships

Jonelle can promote her grandchildren's development indirectly by

providing financial assistance to their parents.

Which of the following children is least likely to participate in an available neighborhood organization?

Francios, who lives in a low-income area

Parent-teacher contact is more frequent in

small towns

In the United States today, African-American parents ______ than Caucasian-American parents.

more often live in extended-family households

Which of the following is a reason why attempts to help cihldren and youths have been difficult to realize in the United States?

Children cannot vote or lobby to protect their own interests.

In a kinship study of intelligence, which of the following sibling pairs will likely share a high correlation?

Jabar and Tobias, identical twins

In an extremely under-stimulating environoment, both Bella and Alice would have low intelligence. However, in a highly-stimulating environment, Alice's performance would greatly exceed Bella's performance. This is an example of

reaction range

Jada provides her baby with a healthy diet, which promotes brain growth, leading to new connections among nerve cells, which transform gene expression. This sequence opens the doors to a new gene. - environment exchanges, such as advanced exploration of objects and interaction with caregivers. This is an example of

epigenesis

Marcus, a cooperative, attentive child, receives more patient and sensitive interactions from his parents than they give to Erica, his distractable, inattentive sister. This is an example of a(n) ______ genetic.- environmental correlation

evocative

Extended-famly living is associated with

more positive mother-child interaction during the preschool years

Which of the following statements reflects a widely held opinion in the United States?

"If you decide to have a baby, you should be ready to care for it.."

Most children with sex chromosome disorders

have very specific intellectual problems.

Nate, whose parents are involved in his school activites, probably

shows better academic achievement than his agemates whose parents are uninvolved

Which of the following individuals is the most likely to score high in impulsivity, according to research on smoking?

John, who has a DD genetic makeup and a mother who smoked prior to becoming pregnannt

In the United States today, ____ percent of married couples bear children.

70

Which of the following statements is true about only children?

They are as well-adjusted as children with siblings.

Most conceptions result from intercourse during the

two days preceding ovulation and the day of ovulation.

Valerie, 2-months pregnant, wonders how food and oxygen are delivered to the developing organism. You should tell Valerie that the ______ performs this function.

placenta

During the period of the fetus, the

developing organism increases rapidly in size.

Carmen is prematurely delivering her baby at 28 weeks. The baby will probably

need oxygen assistance to breathe.

Monica provides fer fetus with stimulation specifically designed to enhance later mental development. Monica should know that

later experiences can override the impact of fetal stimulation.

Sophie weighed 8.9 pounds when she was born. Research shows that she is at an increased risk of ____ in adulthood.

breast cancer

The harm done by teratogens

depends on the dose, heredity, age, and other negative influences.

The effects of teratogens

may not show up for decades

Jesse weighed 3.3 pounds when he was born. Research shows that he is at an increased risk of ______ in adulthood.

diabetes

Beatrice has smoked throughout her pregnancy. Now in her seventh month, Beatrice is considering quitting. You can tell her that:

if she quits now, she reduces the liklihood that her baby will be born underweight.

Jenna's physical growth is slow. She has short eyelid openings, a thin upper lip, a flattened philtrum, and brain injury. Jenna's mother probably _____ during pregnancy.

drank heavily

Which of the following statments is true about HIV and AIDS?

HIV-positive pregnant women pass the virus to their fetus 20 to 30 percent of the time.

Danica is a healthy 35 year old women who is pregnant with her first child. Danica is

more likely to have prenatal complications than a woman in her twenties

The Nurse-Family Partnership is a

voluntary home visiting program for first time, low income expectant mothers

Infants born to teenagers have a higher rate of problems because

many pregnant teenagers do not reveive adequate prenatal care.

Kali's face, hands, and feet began to swell in the second half of her pregnancy. Kali's doctor began to monitor her blood pressure. The doctor was probably concerned about

preeclampsia

Nearly 30 percent of adolescent mothers

receive inadequate prenatal care

Which of the following statements about models of effective parenthood is true?

Many people come to terms with negative experiences in their own childhoods and build healthier and happier relationships with their children.

During the second month of pregnancy, the

heart develops separate chambers

During the period of the fetus, the

developing organism increases rapidly in size.

The ______ produces blood cells until the developing liver, spleen, and bone marrow are mature enough to take over this function.

yolk sac

Research on childbearing reveals that

a 45 year old man is less fertile than a 25 year old man.

Which of the following statements is supported by research on family size?

parents who have many children tend to reallocate their energies.

The ____ secretes hormones that prepare the lining of the uterus to receive a fertilized ovum.

corpus luteum

Sperm can survive for up to

six days

The period of the zygote lasts

from fertilization to implantation.

During the second month of pregnancy, the

heart develops separate chambers

During the third month of pregnancy,

the fetus can suck its thumb

Which of the following statements is true about Zola's third month of pregnancy?

she should be able to hear the heartbeat through a stethoscope

During her first prenatal visit, LaToya's doctor explains that the _____ prevent(s) the skin from chapping during the long months spent bathing in the amniotic fluid.

vernix

During the second trimester,

lanugo appears over the entire body

The age of viability occurs sometime between ____ and ____ weeks.

22; 26

In one study, more active fetuses during the third trimester became 1 year olds who ______ than those who were less active prenatally.

could better handle frustration.

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