Biological Proccesess - Chapter 4

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Chapter 4 Vocab - TEST 2

Light Microscope

Visible light is passed through a specimen, such as a microorganism or a thin slice of animal or plant tissue, and then through glass lenses.

Cell theory

States that all living things are composes of cells and that all cells come from other cells.

Electron Microscope

Focuses a beam of electrons through a specimen or onto its surface.

Scanning Electron Microscope

Used to study the detailed architecture of cell surfaces.

Transmission Electron Microscope

Used to study the details of internal cell structure.

Prokaryotic Cells

In Bacteria and Archea.

Eukaryotic Cells

Have membrane-encolused nucleas, which houses DNA. In protists, fungi, plants, and animals.

Chromosomes

Carry genes made of DNA.

Ribosomes

Tiny structures that make proteins according to instructions from the genes.

Cytoplasm

Interior of both types of cell.

Nucleoid

Region where DNA is coiled into.

Flagella

Long projections that propel a prokaryotic cell through its liquid enviornment.

Organelles

"little organs" which perform specific functions in the cell.

Cellular Metabolism

Chemical activities of cells.

Nucleus

Contains most of the cells DNA.

Chromatin

Complex of proteins and DNA that appears as a diffuse mass.

Nuclear Envelope

Double membrane that encloses the nucleus.

Nucleolus

Prominent structure in the nucleus is the site where a special type of RNA called ribosomal RNA is synthesized.

Endomembrane System

System containing many of the membranes of the eukaryotic cell.

Vesicles

Sacs of membrane.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

The extensive network of flattened sacs and tubules.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Smooth because it lacks attatched ribosomes.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Has ribosomes that stud the outer surface of the membrane; thus it appears rough in the electron micrograph.

Lysome

Membranous sac of digestive enzymes.

Peroxisomes

Metabolic compartments that do not originate from the endomembrane system.

Mitochondria

Organelles that carry out cellular respiration in nearly all eukaryotic cells, converting the chemical energy of foods such as sugars to the chemical energy of the molecule called ATP.

Mitochonrial Matrix

Contains mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.

Cristae

Folds that increase the membrane's surface area, enhancing the mitochondrian's ability to produce ATP.

Chloroplasts

The photosynthesizing organelles of all photosynthetic eukaryotes.

Stroma

Thick fluid help in the compartment inside the inter membrane space.

Thylakoids

A network of interconnected sacs.

Granum

Thylakoid stacks.

Endosymbiont Theory

States that mitochondria and chloroplasts were formerly small prokaryotes that began living within larger cells.

Cytoskeleton

Network of protein fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm of a cell.

Microfilaments

Also called actin filaments. Solid rods composed mainly of globular proteins called acting, arranged in a twisted double chain.

Intermediate Filaments

Serve mainly to reinforce cell shape and to anchor certain organelles.

Microtubles

Straight, hollow tubes composed of globular proteins called tubulins.

Centrioles

...

Cilia

The short, numerous appendages that propel protists.

Extracelluar Matrix

Layer that helps hold cells together in tissues and protects and supports the plasma membrane.

Integrins

Span the membrane, attaching to the other side of proteins connected to micro filaments of the cytoskeleton.

Cell Wall

...

Plasmodesmata

...

Plasma Membrane

Forms a flexible boundary between the living cell and its surroundings.

Glycoprotein

Short chains of sugars often linked to the polpeptide.

Transport Vesicle

Vesicle that moves from one part of the cell to another.

Gogli Apparatus

Serves as a molecular warehouse and finishing factory for products manufactured by the ER.

Vacuoles

Large vesicles that have a variety of functions.

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