A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and james Madison under the name "Publis" to defent the Constitution in detail. Collectively, these papers ae second only to the U.S. Constitution in characterizing the framers' intents.
Opponents of the American constitution at time when the states were contemplating its adoption. They argued that the Constitution was a class-based document, that it would erode fundamental liberties, and that it would weaken the power of the states.
A major informal way in which the Constitution is changed by the courts as the government.
A nation's basic law. It creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in government, and often provides certain guarantees to citizens.
Equal Rights Amendment
A constitutional amendment passed by Congress in 1978 and sent to the state legislatures for ratification, stating that "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex."
Interest groups arising from the unequal distribution of property or wealth that james Madison attacked in Federalist Paper No. 10. Today's parties or interest groups are what Madison had in mind whn he warned of the instability in government caused by this.
the body of tradition,, practice, and procedure that is as important as the written constitution. Changes in the unwritten constitution can change the spirit of the Constitution. Political parties and national party conventions are part of this in the United States.
New Jersey Plan
The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for equal representation of each state in Congress regardless of the state's population.
Supporters of the U.S constitution at the time the states were contemplating its adoption.
Marbury v. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, in this case the Judiciary Act of 1789.
The document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the instituional structure of U.S government and tasks these institutions perform. It replaced the articles of Confederation.
The idea that certain things are out of bounds for government because of the natural rights of citizens.
Articles of Confederation
The first constitution of the United States, adopted by Congress in 1777 and enacted in 1781.
A series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by revolutionary war.
Separation of Powers
An important part of the Madisonian model that requires each of the three brances of government : executive, legislative, and judicial to be relatively independent of the others so that one cannot control the others.
Consent of the governed
According to John Locke, the required basis for government. The Declaration of independence reflects Locke's view that governments derive their authority from this.
Rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on governments, which include life liberty and property.
Checks and balances
An important part of the Madisonian model designed to limit government's power by requiring that power be balanced among the different governmental institutions.
Declaration of Independence
The document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence.
The power of the courts to determine whether acts of Congress and by implication the executive, are in accord with the U.S. Constitution.
Bill of Rights
The first 10 Amendments to the U.S. Constitution, drafted in response to some of the Anti-Federalist concerns.
The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for representation of each state in Congress in proportion to that state's share of the U.S. population.
A form of government that derives its power, directly or indirectly, from the people. Those chosen to govern are accountable to those whom they govern.