Part 1

Created by Gotlittle 

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117 terms

Anterior and Ventral

Towards the front, or away from the back

Posterior and Dorsal

toward the back, away from the front

Superior

upper

Inferior

lower

Superficial

towards the surface

Deep

away from the surface

Chephalad and Cranial and Rostral

towards the head

Caudal

towards the tail

External

towards the outer surface

Internal

towards the inner surface

Medial

towards the axis or midline

Lateral

away from axis or midline

Proximal

towards the body or the root of a free extremity (shoulder, hip region)

Distal

away from the body or away from the root of a free extremity

Planes of Reference

Front-coronal, Transverse, Sagittal

Front-coronal (crown)

divides the structure into front and back halves

Transverse

horizontal or cross section

Sagittal

cuts the body into right or left halves

Prone

laying face down

Supine

laying on your back, anatomic position

Flexion

bending of a part, decreasing an angle between two parts

Extention

straightening, or increasing an angle between two parts

Abduction

movement away from the axis, apart (vocal folds)

Adduction

movement toward the median plane, together (vocal folds)

Bone

rigid matrix composed of inorganic salts (calcium), living tissue that supports the body, proficient movement, produce blood cells

Remodeling

process of being broken down and rebuilt, result of two processes, stronger bones with use

Osteoclasts

parts that absorb the bone

Osteoblasts

form new bone

Osteoperosis

bone matrix becomes weaker, breakdown of the mineral and protein content of bone matrix

Periosteum

very thin-like membrane, allows for the attachment of tendons and ligaments

Condyle

rounded knucklike process

Crest

a prominent ridge

Head

an enlargement at one end of the bone beyond the neck

Process

a bony prominence

Spine

A sharp projection

Trochanter

a very large bony projection

Tubercle

a small rounded projection

Tuberosity

a large rounded projection

Elevations

condyle, crest, head, process, spine, trochanter, tubercle, tuberosity

Depressions

fissure, foramen, fossa, fovea, groove, meatus, neck, sinus, sulcus

Fissure

a cluft or deep groove

Foramen

an opening or perforation in a bone or cartilage

Fossa

a pit or hollow

Fovea

a small pitlike depression

Groove

a furrow

Meatus

a tube or passageway (EAM)

Neck

a constrition near one end (the head) of a bone

Sinus

cavity within a bone

Sulcus

a groove or furrow

Cartilage

softer, more flexible then bone

Hyaline

covers surfaces of joints, forms the framework for the lower respiratory tracks and becomes harder with age.

Elastic

rubbery, found in the EAM and epiglottis and Eustachian tube.

Fibrous

known to form the inter vertebral disks of your vertebral column

Connective Tissue

connects or bind structures in order to support the body and aids in certain matinence in the body

Ligaments

parallel fibers (run int he same direction) that have elastic fibers embedded in them, makes them suitable for connecting bones to bones, bones to carts, and carts. to carts.

Tendons

parallel fibers, closely packed (dense) and non elastic. Always ass. with a muscle mech.: in which most muscles attach to bones, sometimes attach bones to carts. and mus. to mus.

Muscles

All human movement is the result of this, provides motor function

Muscle Tissue Types

Striated (skeletal), smooth muscles, and Cardiac.

Striated (skeletal)

Voluntary muscle fibers, you continuously move the muscles. Volitional control can override the reflexes

Smooth muscles

innervated by the autonomic nervous system

Cardia

combination of autonomic and striated

Geometric

reflect the shape of a muscle. ex-"Traps"

General Form

the names of the muscles describe the muscle in some way. ex- Digastricus (two bellied)

Location

reflect where in the body they may be found. ex-Intercostals (between the ribs)

Descriptive Terms

Major, minor, external, internal

Number of heads

on the muscle at the origin. ex-BIcept, TRIcept

Attachments

The muscles may be named according to which bones the muscles are attached (ex.-sternocleidomastoid)

Function

the function of the muscle may be described (ex.- Tensor tympani- makes the eardrum tight, tense)

Endomysium

The fine connective tissue sheath surrounding a muscle fiber.

perimysium

The fibrous sheath enveloping each of the primary bundles of skeletal muscle fibers.

Epimysium

The external sheath of connective tissue surrounding a muscle.

Skeletal muscle contractions 2 types

Isometric and Isotonic

Isometric

muscle develops tension, but does not change in size, in constant length

Isotonic

a contraction causes the muscle to shorten

Strength

3.5 Kg per cm squared

Muscle tone

at rest, you have a certain amount of tension that remains with your muscles

Fatigue

decline in muscle tension, as a result of previous activity slower rate of relaxing, how quickly you fatigue and rate of fatigue dependent on the muscle fiber and the intensity of the fiber

Agonist

the prime mover that initiates and maintains an action, (bicept)

Antagonist

a poses the prime mover
(tricep)

Synergist

stabilizing the muscles, other muscles. Trunk, legs,...

Glands

Tissues that produce chemical secretion or excretions

Endocrine glands

produce internal secretions that go directly into the bloodstream

Exocrine glands

produce external secretions

Lymphoid Tissue

part of the immune system (fights off infections)

antibodies

generated by the lymph tissue, Joe: counteract antigens

antigens

the disease causing agents

Membranes

thin layers of connective tissue, that coats cells, organs, joints, cavities, etc...

Epithelial tissue

lines most of the body's surfaces, and protects other tissues from damage/dehydration

Epidermis

outside skin, epithelial cells, karaten-protein, produce melanin (pigment)

Dermis

Functional layer of the skin that lies just beneath the epidermis, contains nerve cells, blood vessels, and hair folicals.

Subcutaneous Tissue

made mostly of fat, lies just beneath the Dermis

Internal Membranes

are continuous to the skin (mucus membrane(gut respiratory tract))

Simple squamous

single layer of flattened cells, found in blood vessel walls; air sacs of lungs. Function: Diffusion

diffusion

movement of mol., from high concentrations to lower concentrations

simple cuboidal

single layer of cubelike cells; may have microvilli at its free surface, part of the gut lining, part of respiratory tract lining

Cilia

hairlike substances found on a free surface of a cell

Simple Columnar

single layer of tall, slender cells; may have microvilli at its free surface, part of gut lining and respiratory tract

Goblet Cells

variation of the cuboidal cell, also found in the res./dig tracts. Designed to secrete mucin (type of mucus)

Joints

points of articulation in the body: some have high mounts of movement, some have low, and some have none at all

Fibrous

immovible joints *structures (skull)

Cartilaginous Joints

synchondrosis and symphysis

Synchondrosis

ossify through aging (calcifies)

Symphysis

when you have bone connected by fibro cartilage (disks between vertebra)

High mobility (synovial)

fluid inside these joints, cracking your joints, knuckles

Gliding joints

sliding movements between joints, *vertebra (articulatory) you want movement

Hinge joints

permit movement in one plane, usually just backwards and forwards *fingers

Pivot joints

one:permits a pivot of pully like movement *head

Condyloid joints

permit all type of movement except rotation *ancle/wrist

Saddle joints

*between the mallues/incus in your middle ear

Ball and socket

joint that consists of a rounded ball like and that ifts into a cup like cavity shoulder hip

Levers

fulcrum, load, effort

Fulcrum

the point about which the lever rotates

Load

the resistance

Effort

the force applied by the user of a system

Type 1

pivot is between the effort and the load, ROM and speed are attained at the expense of power (allow for greater power, giving up your speed and range of motion)

Type 2

fulcrum (joint) is at one end of the lever arm (bone) and the force applied. (the muscle attachment is at the other end and the load is in between) *jaw opening against resistance, allows little people to move big things.

Type 3

The fulcrum is at one end, the lead at the other, and the force is applied between. Operate with a mechanical disadvantage, power is lost and speed and range of motion is gained. *most common type of lever in the body.

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