AP US History Chp 20 Terms

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do not mind the creation date, its up to date Quiz: C: 9/11/12 B: 9/12/12

stalwarts

this group of Republicans led by Roscoe Conkling in the late 1800's were more conservative and favored the machine form of politics

halfbreeds

this group of Republicans led by Maine senator James Blaine in the late 1800's were moderates who favored civil service reform throughout government using tactics such as a merit system

Pension Act 1890

this act made virtually every Union army veteran and his dependents eligible for benefits

Interstate Commerce Commission

the nation's 1st independent regulatory agency, this organization was created in 1887 to bring order to the growing patchwork of state laws concerning railroads

James Garfield

the 20th president of the United States and Civil War hero was assassinated in 1881 by Charles Guiteau; his vacated position was taken by Chester Arthur

Department of Education

this organization was originally proposed by then congressman James Garfield in 1880 in which he argued that a public schooling was necessary for all children

Pendleton Act

this act passed in 1883 allowed the president, along with Senate approval, to create a 3 person commission to draw up a set of guidelines (merits) for executive and legislative appointments

Civil Service Reform Association

this organization created by the Pendleton Act established a system of standards for various federal jobs and instituted "open competitive examinations for testing the fitness of applicants for public service"; this organization also barred political candidates from soliciting campaign contributions from government workers

Grange

this refers to the local chapter of the Patrons of Husbandry for an area

Oliver Kelley

this man was the head of the Patrons of Husbandry and the leader of the Grange Movement

Munn v Illinois

this Supreme Court case upheld the federal law that established maximum rates for storing grains

Charles Macune

this key figure of the Grange movement led several regional chapters of granges to converge to form the National Farmer's Alliance and Industrial Union

National Farmer's Alliance and Industrial Union

this organization consisting of several regional chapters of granges formed by Charles Macune and William Lamb

Northern Farmers' Alliance

this alliance was made up of regional granges from Minnesota, Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, and the Dakota Territory and was centraled in the Great Plains

Southern Farmer's Alliance

this failed alliance as of 1889 tried to act as an alternative to the capitalist market for produce goods

Tompkins Square Riot

this protest in 1874 made by workers was made to fight equal labor wages, and a batallion of 1,600 policemen fought the crowd

Henry George

this popular economist, land reformer, and author of "Progress and Property", launched a campaign for mayor of New York City as a member of the United Labor Party ticket

Patrons of Husbandry

this organization was founded in 1867 by farmers in the Great Plains, led by Oliver Kelley, and had their own "social, intellectual, and moral movement"

Frances Willard

this leader of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, the largest women's organization in the world at that time, advocated for the women of her time and believed that if they were given suffrage (voting rights) that they would greatly influence society

Populist Movement

this short-lived political party created in 1887 represented a radical form of crusading agrarianism and hostilities towards banks, railroads, and elites, as well as nominating several candidates for presidential elections, most notably William Jennings Bryan in 1896

Mary Lease

this woman activist for the Farmers' Alliances advised farmers to raise less corn and more hell against the monopolies jeopardizing the farming industry

Populist Party Platform

more commonly known as the Omaha Platform, this called for the abolition of national banks, a graduated income tax, direct election of senators, civil service reform, 8 hour working day, and federal government control of all railroads, telegraphs, and telephones

Jacob S Coxey

this radical populist gathered great masses of unemployed workers into huge armies and march into Washington, D.C. to protest to Congress for a public works program; on Easter Sunday 1894, he organized a great march starting in Massillion, Ohio with brigades from Boston, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Tacoma, Denver, Salt Lake City, Reno, and Omaha to all meet up in Washington, D.C., this protest eventually fizzled out because the U.S. attorney general at the time, Richard C. Olney, conspired with state and local officials to halt most of the members from entering D.C.

Grover Cleveland

this man was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, the only president to serve 2 terms in office non-consecutively

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

this act, created in 1890, directed the U.S. Treasury to increase the amount of currency coined from silver mined in the West and also permitted the U.S. government to print paper currency backed by the silver

McKinley Tariff

this bill established the highest import duties yet on foreign goods

William McKinley

this man was the 25th president of the United States, who was assasinated in 1901, only 1 year into his 4 year term

William J Bryan

this democrat ran against William McKinley in the Election of 1896 and 1900, losing to McKinley twice

Wilson-Gorman Tariff

this tariff issued in 1894 placed stiff restrictions on Cuban imports to the United States, cutting the volume of trade by as much as 50%

Teller Amendment

this eleventh-hour inclusion into President McKinley's declaration of war against Cuba proposed that the U.S. could not annex Cuba, but instead leave control to those citizens of the island

Theodore Roosevelt

this man was the 26th President of the United States and he was most noted for being a part of the Rough Riders and for being an advocate for expansion and Manifest Destiny as an Assistant Secretary of the Navy

AWSA

this organization formed in November 1869 by Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell was in support of the passage of the 15th Amendment (if it included woman's voting rights) on a state-by-state basis, were abolitionists, and supported voting rights for African-Americans

Bland Allison Act

this act vetoed by President Hayes then overridden into law by Congress in 1878 required by law that a percentage of silver would be bought by the US Treasury to be made into silver currency, primarily silver dollars

NWSA

this organization formed in May 1869 by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth C. Stanton was dedicated to securing woman's voting rights through the passage of the 15th Amendment in a federal government fashion

Billion Dollar Congress

this term, characterizing the 51st annual congress, refers to the humongous amount of money that was available to them to freely spend; the Pension Act of 1890 used the surplus to provide financial support to all veterans from the Union side of the Civil War

James Weaver

this man was the only ever Populist Party candidate to run for president in 1892, when he collected a meager 22 electoral college votes and lost

Depression of 1890

this economic hardship, which actually began in 1893, was a result of the bankruptcy of the nation's major railroad lines

Cleveland Morgan Deal

this agreement in 1895 came about as the result of a few major financial moguls supplied the US Treasury with 3.5 million ounces of gold in exchange for a 30-year bond issue

Karl Marx

this man's beliefs influenced social society by claiming that a class struggle between those in the upper class who controls production and a lower class who makes the goods, would result in great tension; his beliefs were a help to start the Socialist movement

Daniel DeLeon

this Marxist theoretician, newspaper editor, and politician was the leader of the Socialist Labor Party of America from 1890 until his death in 1914

free coinage of silver

this issue highlighted the struggle of the US Treasury during rough economic times in the late 1870's-1890's which concerned which type of currency would be used

Election of 1896

in this presidential election, William McKinley (R) defeats William J Bryan (D) by an electoral vote count of 271-176

Eugene Debs

this Socialist and leader of the American Railway Union organized numerous labor strikes, most famously the Pullman Strike in 1894 in Chicago

William Jennings Bryan

this man was chosen by both the Populist and Democratic parties to run for President in the Election of 1896, ultimately choosing the Democrats and losing to William McKinley (R); huge supporter of religion and prosecutor in the Scopes Trial

Gold Standard Act

this act passed in 1900 by President McKinley made it law that the only redeemable exchange for paper money could come through gold

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