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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. periosteal bud
  2. osteogenesis, before week 8
  3. osteomalacia
  4. intramembranous ossification process
  5. after the secondary ossification centers have appeared and epiphyses have largely ossified, hyaline cartilage remains at only two places
  1. a consists of a nutrient artery and vein, along with the cells that will form the bone marrow
    - contains bone-forming and bone-destroying cells (osteogenic stem cells and osteoclasts)
  2. b applies to a number of disorders in adults in which the bones are inadequately mineralized
    - even though osteoid matrix is produced, calcification does not occur, and the bones soften and weaken
    - main symptom: pain when weight is put on the affected bone
    - caused by inadequate amounts of vitamin D or calcium phosphate in the diet
    - cured by drinking vitamin D-fortified milk and exposing the skin to sunlight
  3. c (1) on the epiphyseal surfaces, where it forms the articular cartilages
    (2) between the diaphysis and epiphysis, where it forms the epiphyseal plates
  4. d skeleton of the human embryo consists only of hyaline cartilage and some membranes of mesenchyme, an embryonic connective tissue
    - bone tissue first appears in week 8 and eventually replaces most cartilage and mesenchymal membranes in the skeleton
  5. e - (1) during week 8 of embryonic development, mesenchymal cells cluster within the connective tissue membrane and become bone-forming osteoblasts
    - (2) cells begin secreting the organic part of the bone matrix, called osteoid, which then becomes mineralized; once surrounded by their own matrix, the osteoblasts are called osteocytes
    - (3) new bone tissue forms between embryonic blood vessels, which are woven in a random network; result is woven bone tissue, with trabeculae arranged in networks; more mesenchyme condenses just external to the developing membrane bone and becomes the periosteum
    (4) trabeculae at the periphery grow thicker until plates of compact bone are present on both surfaces

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. bones are well vascularized
    - 3-11% of the blood in the body is in the skeleton
  2. bone ends are coaxed back into position by the physician's hands
  3. all bones from the base of the skull down, except for the clavicles, are endochondral bones
    - begins late in the second month of development and is not completed until the skeleton stops growing in early adulthood
    - growing endochondral bones increase both in length and in width
  4. main vessels serving the diaphysis
    - together run through a hole in the wall of the diaphysis, the nutrient foramen
  5. canal that runs through the core of each osteon
    - lined by endosteum
    - contains its own blood vessels, which supply nutrients to the bone cells of the osteon, and its own nerve fibers
    - endosteum that lines the central canal is an osteogenic layer
    - unlike the growth rings in trees, lamellae of bone tissue are added to the inner surface of the osteon, thus decreasing the diameter of the central canal

5 True/False questions

  1. healing of a simple fracture(1) hematoma formation
    (2) fibrocartilaginous callus formation
    (3) bony callus formation
    (4) bone remodeling

          

  2. resting (quiescent) zonecartilage cells nearest the epiphysis are relatively small and inactive

          

  3. organic components of bone- cells, fibers, and ground substance
    - account for 35% of tissue mass
    - collagen is abundant in bone tisuse

          

  4. treatment of a fracture- similar to long bones, but have no diaphysis
    - contain bone marrow (between the trabeculae of their spongy bone), but no marrow cavity is present

          

  5. elastic cartilagesimilar to hyaline cartilage; matrix contains many elastic fibers along with the delicate collagen fibrils; more elastic than hyaline cartilage & better able to tolerate repeated bending; epiglottis and outer ear

          

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