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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. hypertrophic zone
  2. fibrocartilage
  3. structure of a long bone
  4. osteogenesis
  5. open reduction
  1. a bone ends are joined surgically with pins or wires; after the broken bone is reduced, it is immobilized by a cast or traction to allow the healing process to begin
  2. b diaphysis
    blood vessels
    medullary cavity
  3. c resists both strong compression and strong tension (pulling) forces; occurs in certain ligaments and certain cartilages that experience both these forces; consists of thick collagen fibers (as in dense regular connective tissue) surrounding the chondrocytes within lacunae; found in anulus fibrosus portion of the discs between the vertebrae and in the articular discs of some joints (ex: menisci of the knee)
  4. d begins in the embryo, proceeds through childhood and adolescence as the skeleton grows, and then occurs at a slower rate in the adult as part of a continual remodeling of the full-grown skeleton
  5. e the older condrocytes deeper in the stack that enlarge and signal the surrounding matrix to calcify

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - projections that are the attachment sites for muscles and ligaments
    - surfaces that form joints
    - depressions and openings
  2. "spider legs"
    - thin tubes
    - osteocytes (mature bone cells), their bodies occupy small cavities in the solid matrix called lacunae
    "little canals" run through the matrix, connecting neighboring lacunae to one another and to the nearest capillaries, such as those in the central canals
    - within the canaliculi, the extensions of neighboring osteocytes touch each other and form gap junctions
  3. mineral salts that invade the bony matrix, making bone tissue hard
  4. also called growth plates
    - responsible for lengthening the bones during the two decades following birth
  5. (1) support
    (2) movement: skeletal muscles attach to the bones by tendons and use the bones as levers to move the body and its parts; support and movement are mutually dependent functions
    (3) protection
    (4) mineral storage: most important are calcium and phosphate
    (5) blood cell formation and energy storage: red marrow makes the blood cells and yellow marrow is a site of fat storage
    (6) energy metabolism: osteoblasts secrete a hormone that influences blood sugar regulation; the hormone (osteocalcin) stimulates pancreatic secretions that reduce blood sugar levels (insulin)

5 True/False questions

  1. diaphysisshaft
    forms the long axis of a long bone


  2. osteogenesis and ossificationprocess of bone-tissue formation


  3. osteosarcomaform of bone cancer
    - usually originates in a long bone of the upper or lower limb


  4. medullary cavityeach of the tubes in an osteon
    - layer of bone matrix in which the collagen fibers and mineral crystals align and run in a single direction
    - fibers and crystals of adjacent lamellae always run in roughly opposite directions; alternating pattern is optimal for withstanding torsion, or twisting, stresses
    - also inhibiting crack propagation: when a crack reaches the edge of a lamella, the forces causing the crack are dispersed around the lamellar boundaries, thus preventing the crack from progressing into deeper parts of the bone and causing fracture


  5. flat bonesdevelop from a mesenchymal membrane through a process called intramembranous ossification


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