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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. elastic cartilage
  2. endochondral ossification, process
  3. calcification zone
  4. hypertrophic zone
  5. osteoclasts
  1. a derived from a lineage of white blood cells
    - multinucleated
    - break down bone by secreting hydrochloric acid, which dissolves the mineral component of the matrix, and lysosomal enzymes, which digest the organic components
  2. b (1) a bone collar forms around the diaphysis
    (2) cartilage calcifies in the center of the diaphysis
    (3) periosteal bud invades the diaphysis, and the first bone trabeculae form; by the third month of development, bone tissue continues to form around the diaphysis from the periosteum and has begun to appear in the center of the diaphysis; this bone tissue makes up the primary ossification center
    (4) diaphysis elongates, and the medullary cavity forms; areas of bone formation in the epiphyses are called secondary ossification centers; larger long bones of the body can have several ossification centers in each epiphysis
    (5) epiphyses ossify, and cartilaginous epiphyseal plates separate diaphysis and epiphyses
  3. c cartilage matrix becomes calcified and the chondrocytes die
  4. d the older condrocytes deeper in the stack that enlarge and signal the surrounding matrix to calcify
  5. e similar to hyaline cartilage; matrix contains many elastic fibers along with the delicate collagen fibrils; more elastic than hyaline cartilage & better able to tolerate repeated bending; epiglottis and outer ear

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. applies to a number of disorders in adults in which the bones are inadequately mineralized
    - even though osteoid matrix is produced, calcification does not occur, and the bones soften and weaken
    - main symptom: pain when weight is put on the affected bone
    - caused by inadequate amounts of vitamin D or calcium phosphate in the diet
    - cured by drinking vitamin D-fortified milk and exposing the skin to sunlight
  2. special type of short bone that forms within a tendon
    - ex: kneecap/patella
    - vary in size and number
    - some clearly act to alter the direction of pull of a tendon
    - others reduce friction and modify pressure in tendons, thus reducing abrasion or tearing
  3. cartilage regenerates poorly in adults
  4. when osteoblasts are completely surrounded by bone matrix and are no longer producing new osteoid
    - function to keep the bone matrix healthy
    - if osteocytes die or are destroyed, the bone matrix is resorbed
  5. accomplished by osteoclasts

5 True/False questions

  1. intramembranous ossification- (1) during week 8 of embryonic development, mesenchymal cells cluster within the connective tissue membrane and become bone-forming osteoblasts
    - (2) cells begin secreting the organic part of the bone matrix, called osteoid, which then becomes mineralized; once surrounded by their own matrix, the osteoblasts are called osteocytes
    - (3) new bone tissue forms between embryonic blood vessels, which are woven in a random network; result is woven bone tissue, with trabeculae arranged in networks; more mesenchyme condenses just external to the developing membrane bone and becomes the periosteum
    (4) trabeculae at the periphery grow thicker until plates of compact bone are present on both surfaces


  2. appositional growth (cartilage)"growth from within"
    chondrocytes within the cartilage divide and secrete new matrix


  3. osteogenesis, before week 8begins in the embryo, proceeds through childhood and adolescence as the skeleton grows, and then occurs at a slower rate in the adult as part of a continual remodeling of the full-grown skeleton


  4. circumferential lamellaeincomplete lamellae that lie between the osteons
    - remains of old osteons that have been cut through by bone remodeling
    - extends around the entire circumference of the diaphysis


  5. compoundeach of the tubes in an osteon
    - layer of bone matrix in which the collagen fibers and mineral crystals align and run in a single direction
    - fibers and crystals of adjacent lamellae always run in roughly opposite directions; alternating pattern is optimal for withstanding torsion, or twisting, stresses
    - also inhibiting crack propagation: when a crack reaches the edge of a lamella, the forces causing the crack are dispersed around the lamellar boundaries, thus preventing the crack from progressing into deeper parts of the bone and causing fracture


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