RUSVM Pathology I Vocab

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Dr. Fuentealba Introduction to Post-Mortem Changes

Pathology

Study of disease inclucing fuctional, biochemical and structural (morphological) alterations, causes of disease, and sequence of events in disease

Necropsy

Postmortem examination of the body to determine the nature of pathological processes that contribute to death or disease

Biopsy

The removal and examination of tissue from the living body to establish a precise diagnosis

Disease

Abnormal body process with characteristic signs which begins at the molecular and cellular level and may effect all or part of the body

Etiology

Cause of disease

Etiology Mnemonic

Double MINT (MMIINNTT)

Genetic/Intrinsic Etiology

Gene variant that is the cause of disease

Acquired/Extrinsic Etiology

Environmental cause of disease

Pathogenesis

Mechanism of disease development from initial stimulus to ultimate expression in response of cell/tissue to the etiology

Molecular & Morphologic Changes

Biochemical and structural alterations induced in the cells and organs of the body

Clinical Manifestations

Functional consequences of the changes

Diagnosis

Concise statement or conclusion concerning the nature, cause or name of a disease or a disease process

Clincal Diagnosis

Diagnosis based on case history, clinical signs and PE

Differential Diagnosis

List of diagnoses that could account for the evidence or lesions of the case

Different Diagnosis Mnemonic

VINDICATE or DAMNIT

Morphological Diagnosis

Diagnosis based on the predominant lesion(s) in the tissue(s)

Etiologic Diagnosis

More definitive diagnosis and names the specific cause of disease

Clinical Pathologic Diagnosis

Diagnosis based on changes observed in the chemistry of fluids and the hematology, structure and function of cells collected from the living patient

Prognosis

Prediction of how the disease will progress or resolve

Pathognomic

Characteristic or indictive of a specific disease

Cellular Swelling

Early, sub-lethal manifestation of cell damage, characterized by increased cell size and volume

Fatty Changes

Early, sub-lethal cell damage characterized by intracytoplasmic intracytoplasmic vacuolation due to the presence of vacuoles of fat

Coagulation necrosis

Cellular or tissue death in a living organism characterized by preservation of tissue architecture and cellular outline; Most common manifestation of cell death

Liquefactive Necrosis

A type of necrosis characterized by complete destruction of the tissue

Caseous Necrosis

A variant of coagulation necrosis characterized by loss of tissue architecture and cellular detail

Dry Gangrenous Necrosis

Form of coagulation necrosis follow by dehydration of affected area and mummification

Moist/Wet Gangrenous Necrosis

Type of necrosis modified by the liquefactive action of saprophytic bacteria causing putrefaction

Gas Gangrenous Necrosis

Type of necrosis characterized by production of gas bubbles in the necrotic tissue by invading bacteria

Fat Necrosis

Type of necrosis affecting the body of fat stores

Apoptosis

Individual cell death as a result of activation of a genetically programmed cell death pathway

Intrinsic Apoptosis

Activation of Caspase-9 then Caspases 3 & 6

Extrinsic Apoptosis

Activation of Caspase-8 then Caspases 3 & 6

Atrophy

Decrease in size of cells that have gained full development

Hypertrophy

Increase in the size of a tissue or organ due to an increase in cell size without an increase in the number of cells

Hyperplasia

Increase in organ size or tissue mass caused by an increase in the number of constituent cells

Aplasia

Lack of development of an organ or tissue

Hypoplasia

Incomplete development or underdevelopment of an organ/tissue

Metaplasia

Reversible change in which one differentiated cell type is replace by another differentiated cell type

Dysplasia

Abnormal organization of cells or disordered growth of cells

Melanin

Brown pigment present in the epidermis and is responsible for the color of skin and hair

Lipofuscin

Accumulates in neurons, cardiac myocytes, thyroid epithelium, hepatocytes, with progressive increase with age and after chronic injury

Hemosiderin

Brown, amorphous, granular, iron-containing pigment formed as a result of lysis of erythrocytes

Bile Pigments

Yellow-brown or brown-green pigment

Anthracosis

Deposition of air pollutants such as coal dust, carbon particles into the lungs and local LN

Silicosis

Deposition of silica dust in the lungs

Asbestosis

Deposition of asbestos into lung producing chronic lung injury and associates with neoplasm

Rigor mortis

Contraction of muscles after death

Algor mortis

Gradual cooling of a cadaver to environmental temperature

Livor mortis

Gravitational pooling of blood to the down side of the body

Postmortem clotting

Clotting in the heart and vessels

Hemoglobin imbibition

Red staining of tissues due to postmortem lysis of RBCs with resulting release of hemoglobin

Bile imbibition

Leakage of bile from the gall bladder and major bile ducts which stains adjacent tisses green to yellow

Pseudomelanosis

Describes an artifactual black discoloration of tissues (similar in appearance to melanosis)

Autolysis/Decomposition

Depends on body temperature before death, size of body, fat stores, hair covering, environmental temperature, etc

Putrefaction

The enzymatic decomposition of organic materil with production of foul-smelling compounds

Postmortem emphysema

Distension of organs due to accumulation of gas

Postmortem rupture and organ displacement

Due to postmortem emphysema

Pyknosis

Shrunken and densely basophilic nuclei with irregularities in the nuclear membrane

Karyorrhexis

The nuclear membrane is ruptured and the nucleus is fragmented

Karyolysis

Complete dissolution of the nucleus with fading or loss of chromatin

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