Fellah A&P II Chapter 19 Vessels

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The adjustment of blood flow to each
tissue in proportion to its requirements at any point in time is termed autoregulation

True

Arterial pressure in the pulmonary circulation is much higher than in the systemic circulation because of its proximity to the heart

False - It's higher in the systemic

Osmotic pressure is created by the presence in a fluid of small diffusible molecules that easily move through the capillary membrane

False - Large, non-diffusible

The cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) is an arterial anastomosis.

True

The outermost layer of a blood vessel is the tunica intima

False - It's Tunica Externa

The thick-walled arteries close to the heart are called muscular arteries

False - They are called Elastic Arteries (conducting vessels)

Hypotension is generally considered systolic blood pressure that is below 100 mm Hg

True

A precapillary sphincter is a cuff of smooth muscle that regulates the flow of blood into the capillaries.

True

The carotid sinus reflex protects the blood supply to the brain, whereas the aortic reflex is more concerned with maintaining adequate blood pressure in the systemic circuit as a whole

True

Vasodilation is a widening of the lumen due to smooth muscle contraction

False - Due to smooth muscle relaxation - and the lumen constricts during contraction.

The pulmonary circulation does not directly serve the metabolic needs of body tissues.

True

The most common form of shock is hypovolemic shock *MY QUESTION*

True

Every minute, about 1.5 ml of fluid leaks out of the capillaries *MY QUESTION*

True

The pancreas is an example of an organ with arteries that do not anastomose
*MY QUESTION*

False

An obstruction in the superior vena cava would decrease the flow of blood from the head and neck to the heart
*MY QUESTION*

True

Arteries supplying the same territory are often merged with one another, forming arterial anastomoses
*MY QUESTION*

True

An increase in blood viscosity will cause an increase in peripheral resistance
*MY QUESTION*

True

The first major branch of the femoral artery is the dorsalis pedis artery

False - popliteal

Whereas diffusion is more important for solute exchange between plasma and interstitial fluid, bulk flow is more important for regulation of the relative volumes of blood and interstitial fluid
*MY QUESTION*

True

Which of the following is not one of the three main factors influencing blood pressure?

Emotional State

Which of the following chemicals does not help regulate blood pressure?

Nitric Acid

Which statement best describes arteries?

All carry blood away from the heart

Which tunic of an artery contains endothelium

Tunica Intima

Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of ________.

capillaries

The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called ________.

hepatic portal circulation

The arteries that are also called distributing arteries are the ________.

muscular arteries

Aldosterone will ________.

promote an increase in blood pressure

The pulse pressure is ________.

systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure

Which of the following signs of hypovolemic shock is a relatively late sign?

rapidly falling blood pressure

Which of the following is likely during vigorous exercise?

Capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood.

Which of the choices below explains why the arterioles are known as resistance vessels?

The contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle in their walls can change their diameter.

Which of the following is true about veins?

Veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs

Which of the following processes provides a long-term response to changes in blood pressure?

renal regulation

Peripheral resistance ________.

increases as blood viscosity increases

Brain blood flow autoregulation ________.

is abolished when abnormally high CO2 levels persist

Blood flow to the skin ________.

increases when environmental temperature rises

Which of the choices below reflects the balance (or imbalance) between the direction and amount of fluid that flows across the capillary walls?

hydrostatic and osmotic pressure

Which of the following is a type of circulatory shock?

vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone

Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure and continuous blood circulation?

tunica media

The influence of blood vessel diameter on peripheral resistance is ________.

significant because resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius

The form of circulatory shock known as hypovolemic shock is ________.

shock that results from large-scale loss of blood volume, or after severe vomiting or diarrhea

In the dynamics of blood flow through capillaries, hydrostatic pressure ________.

is the same as capillary blood pressure

The hepatic portal vein ________.

carries nutrient-rich blood to the liver

The term ductus venosus refers to ________.

a special fetal vessel that allows umbilical blood to bypass the liver

Which of the choices below does not explain why low capillary pressures are desirable?

Low blood pressure is more desirable than high blood pressure

Which of the choices below does not involve tissue perfusion?

blood clotting

Which of the following do not influence arterial pulse rate?

the vessel selected to palpate

Which of the following are involved directly in pulmonary circulation?

right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and left atrium

Histologically, the ________ is squamous epithelium supported by a sparse connective tissue layer.

tunica intima

The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called ________.

arterioles

Fenestrated capillaries ________.

are not found in the brain

Modified capillaries that are lined with phagocytes are called ________.

sinusoids

Factors that aid venous return include all except ________.

urinary output

Which of the following blood pressure readings would be indicative of hypertension?

170/96 in a 50-year-old man

Select the correct statement about factors that influence blood pressure.

Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure increase

Mechanisms that do not help regulate blood pressure include ________.

the dural sinus reflex

The velocity of blood flow is ________.

slowest in the capillaries because the total cross-sectional area is the greatest

Select the correct statement about blood flow.

Blood flow through the entire vascular system is equivalent to cardiac output

A thrombus (blood clot) in the first branch of the arch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood to the ________.

right side of the head and neck and right upper arm

Cerebral blood flow is regulated by ________.

intrinsic autoregulatory mechanisms

A patient with essential hypertension might have pressures of 200/120 mm Hg. This hypertensive state could result in all of the following changes except ________.

increased size of the heart muscle

The short-term controls of blood pressure, mediated by the nervous system and bloodborne chemicals, primarily operate via all but which of the following?

altering blood volume

Secondary hypertension can be caused by ________.

arteriosclerosis

Where in the body would you find low oxygen levels causing vasoconstriction and high levels causing vasodilation?

lungs

Normal average blood pressure for a newborn baby is ________.

90/55

If blood pressure is almost normal in a person who has lost blood, does that mean the tissues are receiving adequate blood flow?

not necessarily

What do the ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale become at birth?

ligamentum arteriosum; fossa ovalis

Which of the following would not result in the dilation of the feeder arterioles and opening of the precapillary sphincters in systemic capillary beds?

a local increase in histamine

Arteriole blood pressure increases in response to all but which of the following?

falling blood volume

The first major branch of the aortic arch is the ________ branch.

brachiocephalic trunk

The embryonic mesodermal cells that will eventually form the endothelial lining of blood vessels are called ________.

blood islands

The most common form of shock is ________.

hypovolemic

A family of peptides called ________ are released by the endothelium and are among the most potent vasoconstrictors known.

endothelins

Arterial ________ provide alternate pathways for blood to get to an organ.

anastomoses

The ________ in the carotid sinuses and aortic arch detect increases in blood pressure.

baroreceptors

________ shock is due to abnormal expansion of blood vessels and a rapid drop in blood pressure.

Vascular

The third major branch of the aortic arch is the ________ artery.

left subclavian

The ________ supply the brain with blood.

internal carotid arteries

________ pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure.

Pulse

Capillary found where active capillary absorption or filtrate formation occurs

Fenestrated Capillaries

Capillary found in endocrine organs that allows hormones to gain rapid entry into the blood

Fenestrated Capillaries

Capillary with intercellular clefts found in the skin and muscles

Continuous Cappillaries

Capillary that may contain Kupffer cells in the lining

Sinusoid Capillary

SEE FIGURE 19.2

Study Guide

Largest artery of the body

aorta

Supplies the kidney

renal artery

Supplies the duodenum and stomach

common hepatic artery

Supplies the distal areas of the large intestine

Inferior mesenteric artery

Supplies pelvic structures

Internal iliac artery

Artery that does not anastomose

renal artery

Gives rise to the right common carotid and right subclavian artery

brachriocephalic trunk

Supplies the lower limbs

external iliac artery

Common site to take the pulse

Radial artery

Major supply to the cerebral hemispheres

Internal carotid artery

Large unpaired branch of the abdominal aorta that supplies the liver, stomach, and spleen

celiac trunk

Receives blood from all areas superior to the diaphragm, except the heart wall.

Superior vena cava

Carries oxygen-poor blood to the lungs.

pulmonary trunk

Drains the scalp

external jugular vein

Runs through the armpit area, giving off branches to the axillae, chest wall, and shoulder girdle

axillary artery

Drains the upper extremities, deep vein

subclavian vein

Artery usually palpated to take the blood pressure.

brachial artery

Major artery of the thigh.

femoral artery

Supplies the small intestine

superior mesenteric artery

Carries oxygen-rich blood from the lungs.

pulmonary vein

Vessel commonly used as a coronly bypass vessel

great saphenous vein

Site where resistance to blood flow is greatest

arterioles

Site where exchanges of food and gases are made

capillaries

Site where blood pressure is lowest

large veins

Site where the velocity of blood flow is fastest

large arteries

Site where the velocity of blood flow is slowest

capillaries

Site where the blood volume is greatest

large veins

Site where the blood pressure is greatest

large arteries

Site that is the major determinant of peripheral resistance

arterioles

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