The adjustment of blood flow to each
tissue in proportion to its requirements at any point in time is termed autoregulation
Arterial pressure in the pulmonary circulation is much higher than in the systemic circulation because of its proximity to the heart
False - It's higher in the systemic
Osmotic pressure is created by the presence in a fluid of small diffusible molecules that easily move through the capillary membrane
False - Large, non-diffusible
The cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) is an arterial anastomosis.
The outermost layer of a blood vessel is the tunica intima
False - It's Tunica Externa
The thick-walled arteries close to the heart are called muscular arteries
False - They are called Elastic Arteries (conducting vessels)
Hypotension is generally considered systolic blood pressure that is below 100 mm Hg
A precapillary sphincter is a cuff of smooth muscle that regulates the flow of blood into the capillaries.
The carotid sinus reflex protects the blood supply to the brain, whereas the aortic reflex is more concerned with maintaining adequate blood pressure in the systemic circuit as a whole
Vasodilation is a widening of the lumen due to smooth muscle contraction
False - Due to smooth muscle relaxation - and the lumen constricts during contraction.
The pulmonary circulation does not directly serve the metabolic needs of body tissues.
The most common form of shock is hypovolemic shock *MY QUESTION*
Every minute, about 1.5 ml of fluid leaks out of the capillaries *MY QUESTION*
The pancreas is an example of an organ with arteries that do not anastomose
An obstruction in the superior vena cava would decrease the flow of blood from the head and neck to the heart
Arteries supplying the same territory are often merged with one another, forming arterial anastomoses
An increase in blood viscosity will cause an increase in peripheral resistance
The first major branch of the femoral artery is the dorsalis pedis artery
False - popliteal
Whereas diffusion is more important for solute exchange between plasma and interstitial fluid, bulk flow is more important for regulation of the relative volumes of blood and interstitial fluid
Which of the following is not one of the three main factors influencing blood pressure?
Which of the following chemicals does not help regulate blood pressure?
Which statement best describes arteries?
All carry blood away from the heart
Which tunic of an artery contains endothelium
Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of ________.
The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called ________.
hepatic portal circulation
The arteries that are also called distributing arteries are the ________.
Aldosterone will ________.
promote an increase in blood pressure
The pulse pressure is ________.
systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure
Which of the following signs of hypovolemic shock is a relatively late sign?
rapidly falling blood pressure
Which of the following is likely during vigorous exercise?
Capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood.
Which of the choices below explains why the arterioles are known as resistance vessels?
The contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle in their walls can change their diameter.
Which of the following is true about veins?
Veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs
Which of the following processes provides a long-term response to changes in blood pressure?
Peripheral resistance ________.
increases as blood viscosity increases
Brain blood flow autoregulation ________.
is abolished when abnormally high CO2 levels persist
Blood flow to the skin ________.
increases when environmental temperature rises
Which of the choices below reflects the balance (or imbalance) between the direction and amount of fluid that flows across the capillary walls?
hydrostatic and osmotic pressure
Which of the following is a type of circulatory shock?
vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone
Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure and continuous blood circulation?
The influence of blood vessel diameter on peripheral resistance is ________.
significant because resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius
The form of circulatory shock known as hypovolemic shock is ________.
shock that results from large-scale loss of blood volume, or after severe vomiting or diarrhea
In the dynamics of blood flow through capillaries, hydrostatic pressure ________.
is the same as capillary blood pressure
The hepatic portal vein ________.
carries nutrient-rich blood to the liver
The term ductus venosus refers to ________.
a special fetal vessel that allows umbilical blood to bypass the liver
Which of the choices below does not explain why low capillary pressures are desirable?
Low blood pressure is more desirable than high blood pressure
Which of the choices below does not involve tissue perfusion?
Which of the following do not influence arterial pulse rate?
the vessel selected to palpate
Which of the following are involved directly in pulmonary circulation?
right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and left atrium
Histologically, the ________ is squamous epithelium supported by a sparse connective tissue layer.
The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called ________.
Fenestrated capillaries ________.
are not found in the brain
Modified capillaries that are lined with phagocytes are called ________.
Factors that aid venous return include all except ________.
Which of the following blood pressure readings would be indicative of hypertension?
170/96 in a 50-year-old man
Select the correct statement about factors that influence blood pressure.
Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure increase
Mechanisms that do not help regulate blood pressure include ________.
the dural sinus reflex
The velocity of blood flow is ________.
slowest in the capillaries because the total cross-sectional area is the greatest
Select the correct statement about blood flow.
Blood flow through the entire vascular system is equivalent to cardiac output
A thrombus (blood clot) in the first branch of the arch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood to the ________.
right side of the head and neck and right upper arm
Cerebral blood flow is regulated by ________.
intrinsic autoregulatory mechanisms
A patient with essential hypertension might have pressures of 200/120 mm Hg. This hypertensive state could result in all of the following changes except ________.
increased size of the heart muscle
The short-term controls of blood pressure, mediated by the nervous system and bloodborne chemicals, primarily operate via all but which of the following?
altering blood volume
Secondary hypertension can be caused by ________.
Where in the body would you find low oxygen levels causing vasoconstriction and high levels causing vasodilation?
Normal average blood pressure for a newborn baby is ________.
If blood pressure is almost normal in a person who has lost blood, does that mean the tissues are receiving adequate blood flow?
What do the ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale become at birth?
ligamentum arteriosum; fossa ovalis
Which of the following would not result in the dilation of the feeder arterioles and opening of the precapillary sphincters in systemic capillary beds?
a local increase in histamine
Arteriole blood pressure increases in response to all but which of the following?
falling blood volume
The first major branch of the aortic arch is the ________ branch.
The embryonic mesodermal cells that will eventually form the endothelial lining of blood vessels are called ________.
The most common form of shock is ________.
A family of peptides called ________ are released by the endothelium and are among the most potent vasoconstrictors known.
Arterial ________ provide alternate pathways for blood to get to an organ.
The ________ in the carotid sinuses and aortic arch detect increases in blood pressure.
________ shock is due to abnormal expansion of blood vessels and a rapid drop in blood pressure.
The third major branch of the aortic arch is the ________ artery.
The ________ supply the brain with blood.
internal carotid arteries
________ pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure.
Capillary found where active capillary absorption or filtrate formation occurs
Capillary found in endocrine organs that allows hormones to gain rapid entry into the blood
Capillary with intercellular clefts found in the skin and muscles
Capillary that may contain Kupffer cells in the lining
SEE FIGURE 19.2
Largest artery of the body
Supplies the kidney
Supplies the duodenum and stomach
common hepatic artery
Supplies the distal areas of the large intestine
Inferior mesenteric artery
Supplies pelvic structures
Internal iliac artery
Artery that does not anastomose
Gives rise to the right common carotid and right subclavian artery
Supplies the lower limbs
external iliac artery
Common site to take the pulse
Major supply to the cerebral hemispheres
Internal carotid artery
Large unpaired branch of the abdominal aorta that supplies the liver, stomach, and spleen
Receives blood from all areas superior to the diaphragm, except the heart wall.
Superior vena cava
Carries oxygen-poor blood to the lungs.
Drains the scalp
external jugular vein
Runs through the armpit area, giving off branches to the axillae, chest wall, and shoulder girdle
Drains the upper extremities, deep vein
Artery usually palpated to take the blood pressure.
Major artery of the thigh.
Supplies the small intestine
superior mesenteric artery
Carries oxygen-rich blood from the lungs.
Vessel commonly used as a coronly bypass vessel
great saphenous vein
Site where resistance to blood flow is greatest
Site where exchanges of food and gases are made
Site where blood pressure is lowest
Site where the velocity of blood flow is fastest
Site where the velocity of blood flow is slowest
Site where the blood volume is greatest
Site where the blood pressure is greatest
Site that is the major determinant of peripheral resistance