Biology Midterm

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BY 111-2 creation/evolution and chapters 1-4

biology

the study of living things

logy

study of

organisms

living things

habitat

regions where particular organisms normally live

botany

the study of plants

zoology

the study of animals

human anatomy and physiology

the study of the physical structure and function of the human body

botany, zoology, and human anatomy

the 3 major fields of biology

diet, medicine,and industry

3 reasons why the study of botany is important

Flowers, Leaves, Stems, and Roots

the 4 basic parts of a plant

taproot system

one in which the main root grows straight down and remains larger than the secondary roots that branch off from it

fibrous root system

one in which the primary root remains small and many slender secondary roots from it in all directions

angiosperms

flowering seed plants

composite family

one of the largest families of the angiosperms, also called the sunflower family

disk flowers

ones in the center

ray flowers

arranged around the disk flowers

daisy

one of the best known and most beautiful of the composite family

annual

a plant which develops from a seed and produces new seeds in a single growing season

biennial

plants that live through two growing seasons

perennial

plants which live from year to year and bloom each season

disk and ray

what two types of flowers make up a composite flower

grasses

may be considered the most important group of plants on earth

turf grasses

those grasses that are used as coverings for lawns, athletic fields, golf courses and playgrounds

poison sumac, poison ivy, and poison oak

the three most common poisonous plants

legumes

members of the pea family are commonly referred to as

deciduous

lose their leaves each fall and are bare all winter

evergreen

retain their leaves throughout the winter

stolon

a creeping stem that grows above the ground

sheath

wraps partially around the stem at the base of the leaf

wheat, corn, and rice

the three most important cereal crops

1 cotyledon, parallel veins, petals in multiples of 3, fibrous root system

name the 4 characteristics of monocots

2 cotyledons, broad, flat leaves with branching veins, petals in multiples of 4 or 5, taproot system

name the 4 characteristics of dicots

nitrogen cycle

the movement of nitrogen from the air, into the soil, and back into the air

nitrifying bacteria

provides nitrates to the soil from decomposing plants and animals

daisy, oxeye daisy, asters, goldenrod

name some members of the Composite family

peppermint, spearmint, oregano, basil, sage, lavendar, marjoram, rosemary, thyme, balm

name some members of the Mint family

poison hemlock, water hemlock, queen anne's lace

name some members of the Parsley family

blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, apple, apricot, cherry, nectarine, peach, pear, plum. almond tree

name some members of the Rose family

English peas, beans, peanuts, lentils, alfalfa, clover, vetch, kudzu

name some members of the Pea family

cabbage, collards, kale, turnips, radish, brussels sprouts

name some members of the Mustard family

day lilies, tulip, trillium, hyacinth, aloe vera, yucca

name some members of the Lily family

tomatoes, Irish potatoes, peppers, eggplants, tobacco, petunia

name some members of the Nightshade family

poison sumac, poison ivy, poison oak, cashew tree

name some members of the Cashew family

Cashew

the three most common poisonous plants, poison sumac, poison ivy and poison oak come from what family

graminoids (or grasses)

among the most important group of flowering seed plants

grasses

is considered the most important group of plants on earth

wheat, barley, rye, oats, rice, corn

name some cereal crops

turf grasses

those grasses that are used as coverings for lawns, athletic fields, golf courses, and playgrounds

fibrous

what type of root system does grass have

crown

the leaves of a tree form its bushy head called what

catkins

"flowers in disguise"

root system

what system is the part of the plant that is usually underground

shoot system

what system is the part of the plant that is usually found above ground, holding up the leaves toward the sun

shoot system

leaves are part of what system of the plant

organ

a structure within a system which has a definite form and performs a definite function or functions for the system

broad and flat, long and narrow, needle-like or scale-like

name the 3 basic leaf shapes

blade

the flat, green portion of the leaf

petiole

the leafstalk

sessile

leaves which lack a petiole are referred to as what

stipules

small leaf-like or scale-like structures that helped to cover the leaf when it was developing

buds

what contain developing leaf or stem structures

simple leaves

have one blade on every petiole

compound leaves

have more than one blade on every petiole

leaflet

each small blade on a compound lead is referred to a a

nodes

the points at which leaves grow from the stem are referred to as what

alternate

what type of arrangement has only one leaf growing from each node

whorled

what type of arrangement has 3 or more leaves growing from each node

rosette

what type of arrangement has a cluster of leaves growing around the base of the plant

opposite

what type of arrangement has 2 leaves growing from each node

phototropism

the growth response of a plant stimulated by light

structural, vascular, meristematic

name the 3 types of plant tissues

epidermal, cork, parenchyma, support and strengthening

name the 4 types of structural tissue

epidermal

what tissue protects and covers leaves, roots, stems, and other exposed areas

cuticle

consists of a waxy substance that helps to seal in water

root hairs

absorb water and nutrients for the root

cork

what tissue protects and waterproofs the stems and certain roots of woody plants

parenchyma

what tissue makes and stores food

support and strengthening

what tissue consists of fibers that run through roots, stems, and large veins of leaves

vascular

what tissues are composed of elongated, tubular cells; they are also sap-conducting cells

sap

the sweet liquid found within the vascular tissue of plants

xylem and phloem

two types of vascular tissues

xylem

transports water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots to the leaves

phloem

transports food manufactured on the leaves downward

growth and repair of plants

what is the purpose of meristematic tissue

cambium tissue

one of the most important types of meristematic tissue

vascular cambium

produces new vascular tissue (xylem and phloem)

cork cambium

produces new cork tissue

epidermis

provides covering and protection for both the upper and lower leaf surfaces

stomata

tiny openings on the lower epidermis, main purpose is to allow air to move into and out of the leaves

transpiration

the loss of water vapor from leaves and stems

guard cells

two crescent-shaped cells that expand and contract in order to open and close each stoma

mesophyll

the middle portion of the leaf, which also forms the great bulk of the leaf

mesophyll

which part of the plant does most of the photosynthesis take place

inter-cellular air spaces

the air spaces between the spongy mesophyll cells

palisade and spongy

what two layers is mesophyll divided into

cell

the basic structural unit of all living things

cell membrane

surrounds the cell, separates it from its environment, and regulates what enters and leaves the cell

lumen

the cavity surrounded by a membrane

nucleus

a spherical body often located near the center of the cell, controls the cell's activities

cytoplasm

serves as the fluid medium for the many molecules and organelles that make up the cell

organelles

"little organs"

cell wall

found around the outside of the cell membrane

cellulose

a complex carbohydrate made up of long chain of glucose molecules

lignin

a substance that adds stiffening to the walls of the woody cells in tress and shrubs

chloroplasts

tiny chemical "factories" that use the light of the sun to manufacture food

chlorophyll

the green pigment which give plants their color and enables them to capture the energy of the sun

vacuoles

the storage structures in cells, stores food materials, fluid substances, and minerals

venation

what is the pattern of the veins within its leaves called

parallel, pinnate, palmate

name the 3 main types of venation

parallel

what venation has the veins usually parallel to each other along the length of the leaf

pinnate

what venation has the veins in a branching pattern, characterized by one major vein (midrib) with smaller veins extending outward from it

palmate

what venation is characterized by two or more major veins extending outward from one point like the fingers extending from the palm of a hand

autotrophs

also called producers, are capable of making their own food

heterotrophs

also called consumers, are not capable of making their own food, and must obtain it from other organisms

photosynthesis

"putting together with light"; the process whereby a plant's chloroplasts capture the radiant energy of sunlight and convert it into the chemical energy of food

thylakoids

photosynthesis occurs within the chloroplasts which contain specialized disks called what

C6 H12 O6

glucose

glucose

hydrogen atoms from NADPH are combined with carbon dioxide from the air to produce what simple sugar

cellular respiration

enables the plant to "burn" sugars as fuel for energy.

sucrose

much of the glucose produced through photosynthesis is converted in what, also known as table sugar

starch

long, chainlike molecules consisting of thousands of glucose molecules linked together

water, carbon dioxide, sunlight, temperature, and the health of the plant

the most important factors in the process of photosynthesis

indirect

what kind of bearing does water have on the process of photosynthesis

intensity of the sunlight striking the leaf

the single most important factor affecting photosynthesis

deterioration of chlorophyll

what causes leaves to lose their green color

xanthophyll

produces yellowish colors

carotene

produces yellowish-orange colors

anthocyanin

produces bright red, blue, and purple colors

abscission layer

special layer of cells that form at the base of the petiole, severing the connections between the petiole and stem

cellulase

a special enzyme what weakens the cell walls of the abscission layer, allowing the leaf to break off under its own weight

tugor pressure

the water within the guard cells produce what kind of pressure

turgid

when the guard cells are filled with water, they are defined as what

temporary wilting

occurs when transpiration takes place faster than the roots can absorb soil water, causing the plan cells to lose their turgor

permanent wilting

occurs when there is a drought and there is not sufficient soil water to replace that lost by transpiration

tendrils

special leaves which have the unique function of holding the vine upright by coiling around some support structure

Venus' flytrap, sundew, pitcher plant, bladderwort

name some types of special leaves

observable, testable, repeatable

3 qualities of empirical (true) science

Adam

who is identified as the 1st biologist

Bible

the ultimate foundation for the study of science

Biblical

what world view is centered on God and founded on creation

humanistic

what world view is centered on man and founded on evolution

Charles Darwin

Father of Evolution

1859

what year did he write the Origin of Species

1925

what year was the Scopes Trial

Time

the magic factor for evolution

transitional forms

what must exist if evolution is to be true

punctuated equilibrium

what says that evolution occurs in sudden spurts

Archaeopteryx

what is the form between a reptile and a bird

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