Chemistry

Created by dj43 

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disaccharides

two monosaccharides together

sucrose

disaccharide consisting of 1 molecule glucose and 1 molecule fructose

glucose and fructose

Sucrose is made of what?

lactose

disaccharide consisting of 1 molecule glucose and 1 molecule galactose (milk sugar)

maltose

disaccharide consisting of 2 molecules of glucose (bread, pasta, beer)

polysaccharides

large chains of monosaccharides

simple polysaccharides

linear or straight chain of sugars or have small branches.

complex polysaccharides

multiple or long branches

starches

large polysaccharides of glucose

glycogen

(animal starch) stored in liver and muscle

cellulose

plant structural polysaccharides that cannot be digested in humans although bacteria in the intestine can add in its digestions (wood, celery, lettuce)

conjuagted carbohydrates

glycolipids, glycoproteins, proteoglycans

glycolipids

fat with sugar added (cell membranes)

glycoproteins

protein with sugar added (cell membranes)

proteoglycans

amino acids or sugar added to protein (cell membranes)

lipids

ratio of carbon to hydrogen is usually 1:2. but lipids contain very little oxygen

lipids

generally water insoluble but are carried by special proteins in the blood

lipids

in general women (18-24%) contain more then men (12-18%)

lipids

gram to gram, generate about twice as much energy as carbohydrates when catabolized

fatty acids

consist of carboxylic acid group (COOH) and a fatty acid tail

saturated fatty acids

each carbon atom of the tail has 4 single bonds (has 2 H attached)

unsaturated fatty acids

some carbon atoms of the tail has double bonds (has 1 H attached)

polyunsaturated fatty acids

have many carbon atoms with double bonds

glycerides

lipids consisting of 1 molecule of glycerol and attached fatty acids

monoglycerides

glycerol and contain 1 fatty acid

diglycerides

glycerol and contain 2 fatty acids

triglycerides

glycerol and contain 3 fatty acids (fats and oils)

phospholipids

are fatty acids containing a head of diglyceride and phosphated group (PO₄)

glycolipids

fatty acids with a head containing carbohydrates

amphiphilic

are molecules (phospholipids and glycolipids)

hydrophilic (lipophobic)

heads of these molecules (phospholipids and glycolipids)

hydrophobic (lipophilic)

lipid tails (phospholipids and glycolipids)

phospholipids and glycolipids

are present in cell membranes

structural lipids

together, cholesterol, phospholipids and glycolipids are referred as...

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