The holding of several benefices, or church offices.
Church offices granted by the ruler of a state or the pope to an individual.
A pardon, bought with money, releasing a person from punishments due for a sin. People bought indulgences instead of having to confess and perform a penance.
When the words of the priest during the Mass transofroms the bread and wine into the actual body and blood of Christ, who is then fully present in the bread and wine.
Defined by Martin Luther, it is when the bread and wine undergo a spiritual change rather than a physical one, where Christ is really present (the Real Presence).
Offices, endowed by highly educated laypeople in many German towns, that required holders to give about 100, 45-minute informed, well-prepared sermons; they helped pave the way for Protestant worship in which the sermon is the main part of the service.
Brethren of the Common Life
A group of pious laypeople from Holland in the late 1300s who lived in stark simplicity while feeding the hungry, clothing the naked, and visiting the sick, as well as teaching in local schools. They wanted religion to be a personal, inner experience. Influenced by The Imitation of Christ by Thomas a Kempis.
Ninety-five Theses (on the Power of Indulgences)
A letter written to Archbishop Albert in 1517 by Martin Luther denouncing the practice of indulgences.
German Peasant Revolt
Peasants experienced crop failures in 1523 and 1524 and said that the nobles were taking over common lands and new fees were being imposed on them. The revolts broke out in Swabia, Thuringia, Rhineland, and Saxony but were crushed by the noblility; an estimated 75 thousand peasants died in 1525.
Created by Martin Luther in the 1520s, was a modification of Catholicism. It's 4 main differences were the belief that salvation comes from faith (instead of faith and good works), religious authority resides in the Word of God in the Bible and the individual's conscience (instead of the Bible and the teachings of the church), the church consists of the entire community of Christian believers (instead of just the clergy) and the highest form of Christian life did not exist, and all were equal (instead of the monastic and religious life).
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination. Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.
The idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born.
A body of 12 laymen and the Company of Pastors headed by Calvin, its duties were to keep watch over every man's life and to admonish amiably those whom they see leading a disorderly life. Some acts considered to be crimes to the Consistory were absence from sermons, criticism of ministers, dancing, card playing, family quarrels, heavy drinking, heresy, adultery, blasphemy and witchcraft. It used extreme measures for punishments including torture.
When adults were baptized again because they believed that only adults could make the free choice about their religious faith.
Act of Restraint of Appeals
Issued in 1533 in England, it declared that the king (Henry VIII) was the supreme soverign in England and forbade judicial appeals to the papacy making the Crown the highest legal authority in the land.
Supremacy Act of 1534
Declared the king (Henry VIII of England) the supreme head of the Church of England.
Reformers and supporters of Protestantism who wanted to "purify" the church of its previous Roman Catholic qualities
Council of Trent
A meeting of Roman Catholic leaders from 1545-1563, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers. It gave equal validity to the Scriptures and to the traditional sources of the Roman Catholic church, reaffirmed the 7 sacraments and teaching on transubstantiation (of the Eucharist), suppressed pluralism, simony, and indulgences and required education of the clergy. (pg. 479 for full accomplishments)
Started in the 1540s, it was a reaction to Protestantism. It was an effort to convince heretics and dissidents to return to the church before they corrupt the community. Often exiled or killed non-believers for fear of their "infection;" progressed simultaneously with the Catholic Reformation
(Sacred Congregation of the) Holy Office
Established by Pope Paul III in 1542, it was an official Roman Catholic agency to combat international doctrinal heresy and to promote sound doctrine on faith and morals. Had jurisdiction over the Roman Inquisition and published the "Index of Prohibited Books," a catalog of forbidden reading.
The laws passed during the early years of Queen Elizabeth of England's reign that required outward conformity to the Church of England and uniformity in all ceremonies; everyone had to attend Church of England services
Peace of Augsburg
A treaty between Charles V and the German Protestant princes that granted legal recognition of Lutheranism in Germany as well as the each ruler's right to choose which religion his territory would be. Result: most of northern and central Germany became Lutheran; south remained Roman Catholic. Still no freedom of religion, "convert or leave"
The official state of religion in Europe before Protestant reformations came into place. Believed that the church had faithfully preserved the teachings of Christ and the pope was the supreme head.
Church of England
AKA Anglican Church, it underwent Protestant belifs under Edward VI, Catholic ones under Mary Tudor and then when Elizabeth came to power it was deemed the "Church of England, Etc." where people could choose what they wanted to believe as long as they kept quiet about it. It moved in a moderately Protestant direction, services were in English, monasteries were not re-established (after Henry VIII knocked them down), and clergymen WERE allowed to marry.
Presbyterian Church of Scotland
John Knox helped structure it after Calvin's Geneva. Presbyters, or ministers, governed this national church, it applied Calvinist doctrines, adopted a simple and dignified service of worship and laid great emphasis on preaching. Many of its members maintained close relationships with English Puritans.
The seven are baptism, penance, Eucharist, extreme unction, confirmation, marriage and holy orders where the Eucharist was said to be the most important in Roman Catholicism. However, Luther believed the Scriptures only supported baptism, penance, and the Eucharist.
A result of the Council of Trent. 1)Required bishops to reside in their own dioceses 2)Suppressed pluralism, simony, and indulgences 3)Clerics with concubines had to give them up 4)Gave jurisdiction to bishops over the clergy 5)Bishops had to visit every religious house within his diocese at least once every 2 years 6)Every diocese must establish a seminary for the education and training of the clergy with a set curriculm 7)Seminary professors were to determine if candidates for ordination had vocations, or genuine callings for priesthood and 8)Emphasis was laid on preaching and instructing the laity, especially the uneducated
Began before 1517 and sought renewal basically through the stimulation of a new spiritual fervor
Members of the Society of Jesus. Primarily from the wealthy merchant and professional classes. Thought church's problem was with the pastors and the people's spiritual condition. Wanted "to help souls." Agreed to a life of poverty, chastity, obedience. Brought success to the papacy and made schools with modern humanist curricula and methods.
Founded by Angela Merici in 1535; made up of unmarried girls who devoted their lives to the education of women and chastity. Combatted heresy through Christian education
Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros
(1436-1517) An active reformist, he was a Spanish cardinal who visited religious houses, encouraged the monks and friars to uphold their rules and constitutions, and set high standards for the training of diocesan clergy
A preacher in Scotland who sought to model a national church after Calvin's ideas, and succeeded. Got Scottish parliament to end papal authority and abolish the Mass. Wrote "Book of Common Order" in 1564 which became the liturgical directory for the church.
Pope Paul III
(1534-1549) Appointed reform-minded cardinals, established the Inquisition of the Papal States, and formed the Council of Trent and the Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office
Swiss humanist that admired Erasmus and introduced the reformation in Switzerland. He became a priest and decided to preach from Erasmus's New Testament instead of the church's prescribed readings. He was convinced that the Christian life rested on the Scriptures and attacked indulgences, the Mass, the institution of monasticism, and clerical celibacy. Disagreed with Luther on things such as the Eucharist and that it does not undergo any transformation whatsoever.
A Dominican friar hired by Archbishop Albert to sell indulgences in order to be able to repay the FUggers who loaned the Archbishop money for papal dispensation.
Wanted annullment from Catherine of Aragon so he could marry Anne Boleyn but Pope Julius II wouldn't let him for fear of giving support to Lutherans. So, Henry made the king the highest authority in the land with the Act in Restraint of Appeals, forbade the publication of ecclesiastical laws without royal permission with Act for the Submission of the Clergy and declared the king the head of the Church of England with the Supremacy Act. Also dissolved English monasteries.
Sucks. Holy Roman Emperor. Inherited incredibly diverse collection of states and peoples because of his parents (Philip of Burgundy and Joanna of Castile) and his grandparents (Maximilian I of Habsburg, Mary of Burgundy, Ferdinand of Aragon, and Isabella of Castile). He put Burgundy, Spain and Habsburg international interests before Germany's need for reform
(r. 1553-1558) Only surviving child of her parents Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. Brought the Church of England back to Catholicism and she executed and exiled many Protestants during her reign. Unpopular because of her marriage to Philip of Spain.
Pope Alexander VI
Spanish pope Rodrigo Borgia (1492-1503), publicly acknowledged his mistress and children making the owrd Borgia a synonym for moral corruption. Represented the increasing disorder in the Roman Catholic Church