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Human Anatomy and Physiology

abdominal cavity

contains the stomach, small and large intestines, spleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and kidneys (all but the kidneys are within the peritoneal cavity).

abduction

is a movement that takes a body part further away from the central axis

adduction

is a movement that takes a body part closer to the central axis

adrenal cortex

secretes steroid hormones

adrenal medulla

inner part of adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine under the direction of the autonomic nervous system

adrenocorticotropic hormone

a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex

afferents

sensory neurons that receive stimulation from specialized cells within their sensory organ then transmit information to spinal cord neurons, allowing sensory information to ascend to the brain

agonist

a muscle that contracts while another relaxes

aldosterone

a corticosteroid hormone that is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland regulates salt, potassium and water intake

alveoli

tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood

amino acid derivatives

Hormones that are synthesized in a few simple steps from an amino acid molecule; an example is epinephrine, which is released from the adrenal medulla and synthesized from tryosine.

amphiathrosis

a joint that is partially moveable
ex. joints at the different articulations of the vertebra column

anatomic position

a term reference that health professionals use when noting body planes, positions, or directions; the person is assumed to be standing upright (erect), facing forward, feet pointed forward and slightly apart, with arms at the sides and palms facing forward; the patient is visualized in this pose when applying any other term of reference

antagonist

a muscle that relaxes while another contracts

anterior

of or near the head end or toward the front plane of the body

anti-citrullinated protein

Rheumatoid factor

antidiuretic hormone

secreted by the posterior pituitary gland which aids in water re-absorption by the kidney

arachnoid

middle layer of brain & spinal cord

articular cartilage

hyaline cartilage that covers ends of bones in synovial joints

autonomic motor system

governs involuntary activities of visceral muscles including glandular secretions, heart function and digestive function: INVOLUNTRAY

cardiac (striated involuntary) muscle

is found in the heart. Cardiac muscle cells do not need stimulation by the nervous system to start a contraction.

chyme

a semiliquid mass of partially digested food that passes from the stomach through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum

cytoplasm

refers to all the cellular material except the plasma membrane and the nucleus

dermis

the deep vascular inner layer of the skin

diarthrosis

a joint so articulated as to move freely

distal

further away from the point of attachment of the structure in question

distal convoluted tubule

Between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct; Selective reabsorption and secretion occur here, most notably to regulate reabsorption of water and sodium

dorsal

refers to the back surface of the body

epinephrine

Also called adrenaline, a hormone that stimulates body systems in response to stress.

epithelial tissue

forms flat sheets and is most often found on surfaces where exchange with exchange with the environment takes place, such as the lining of the gut or where rapid regeneration must occur to protect internal structures.

estrogens

stimulate uterine lining growth; development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics

extension

is straightening the joint

external respiration

is the exchange of gases in the lungs

flexion

act of bending a joint

frontal plane

vertical division (front and back)

glomerulus

little ball-shaped cluster of capillaries located at the top of each nephron

ground substance

between the cells and contains fibers

hematopoiesis

the formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the bone marrow)

homeostasis

the dynamic steady state we think of when we refer to good health

inferior

is below

internal respiration

is the exchange of gases at the cellular level

lateral

toward the side

medial

is toward the middle

mitochondria

are the cell's power plants, burning fuels such as sugar and fat with oxygen to supply energy for the cell in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Neurons and muscle cells contain very high numbers of mitochondria

myelin

fatty substance/sheath that protects the axon

nephron

functional unit of the kidney

nerves

neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

neuromusclar junction

Where the neuron releases a chemical (called a neurotransmitter) on the muscle surface, causing a chemical changes within the muscle that lead to contraction

neurons

are excitable cells, meaning they can be stimulated to undergo electrical and chemical changes. Found in the brain, the spinal cord and throughout the body.

neurotransmitter

chemical messenger sent across a synapse which allows two neurons to communicate

norepinephrine

neurotransmitter that is involved in arousal and the fight-or-flight system (also mood, sleep, and learning)

nucleus

contains DNA. DNA is arranged in functional units called genes, and genes are linked together in long strings called chromosomes. All cells in the body begin with a nucleus, but red blood cells extrude theirs at maturity

osteoblasts

bone forming cells

osteoclasts

Bone-destroying cells

ovaries

located one on each side of the uterus in the female pelvis, functioning to secrete estrogen and progesterone

ovulation

the expulsion of an ovum from the ovary (usually midway in the menstrual cycle)

oxyhemoglobin

when hemoglobin is bound to oxygen; primary form of oxygen transport in the blood

oxytocin

stimulates contractions of uterus, milk ejections, labor; stops postpartum bleeding

peripheral nervous system

all the nerves located outside the central nervous system; connects the central nervous system to all parts of the body

plasma membrane

encloses the cell and tightly regulates the flow of materials in and out of it

posterior

is the back surface of the body

prone

is lying on the abdomen facing down.

proximal

closer to the point of attachment

sagittal plane

Vertical plane that divides the body into a right and left portion.

skeletal (striated voluntary) muscle

is the most widespread type, constituting all the muscles that move the skeleton

smooth (non striated involuntary) muscles

lines blood and lymph vessels within the body just below the epithelial tissue, such as around the gut, the lungs, and the circulatory and reproductive systems.

somatic motor system

innervates skeletal muscle, responsible for voluntary movement, generally subject to conscious control

tissues

Groups of similar structure cells that have a common function

transverse plane

horizontal division (top and bottom)

ventral

is the front surface of the body

ABG

arterial blood gas

ACE

angiotensin converting enzyme

ACTH

adrenocorticotropic horomone

ADH

anti diuretic hormone

ALP

alkaline phosphatase

ALS

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

ALT

alanine aminotransferase

ANA

antinuclear antibody

AST

aspartate aminotransferase

ATP

adenosine triphosphate

BUN

blood urea nitrogen

C & S

culture and sensitivity

CBC

complete blood count

CK

creatine kinase

CNS

central nervous system

COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

CSF

cerebrospinal fluid

CT

computed tomography

ENT

ear, nose and throat

ESR

erythrocyte sedimentation rate

FBS

fasting blood sugar (glucose)

FTA-ABS

fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test

GGT

y-glutamyltransferase

GH

growth hormone

HBsAG

hepatitis B surface antigen

HCG

human chorionic gonadotropin

HCV

hepatitis C virus

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS virus)

IRDS

infant respiratory distress syndrome

KOH

potassium hydroxide

LH

luteinizing hormone

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

MSH

melanocyte-stimulating hormone

O & P

ova and parasites

PID

pelvic inflammatory disease

PMS

premenstrual syndrome

PSA

prostate-specific antigen

PTH

parathyroid hormone

RA

rheumatoid arthritis

RF

rheumatoid factor

RPR

rapid plasma reagin (test for syphilis)

SLE

systemic lupus erythematosus

STD

sexually transmitted disease

T3

triiodothyronine

T4

thyroxine

TSH

thyroid-stimulating hormone

TSS

toxic shock syndrome

URI

upper respiratory infection

UTI

urinary tract infection

superior

is above

supine

lying on the back with the face turned upward; inclined

synaptic cleft (synapse)

Tiny gap that separates one neuron from another or a neuron from the cell it stimulates.

synarthrosis

an immovable joint

synovial cavity

the fluid-filled space between the articulating bones of a synovial joint, allowing the joint to be freely movable

FSH

follicle-stimulating hormone

The human body is composed of four basic types of tissues

1. Epithelial
2. Muscle
3. Nerve
4. Connective

Name the four basic types of tissues that compose the human body and give an example of each

Tissue Example
Epithelial-lining of gut, surface of the eye
Muscle-heart
Nerve-neurons, spinal cord
Connective-bone, blood

Describe the "anatomic position"

The anatomic position is the body erect, facing forward, arms at the sides, and palms forward.

What are body cavities?

Body cavities are spaces within the body that contain major organs

Name and describe the three body planes

Frontal-vertical division (front and back)
Sagittal- vertical division (left and right)
Transverse-horizontal division (top and bottom)

What is hematopoiesis?

is the formation of blood cells

Name three lab tests, and the disorder they test for, that are used for assess for bone and joint disorders

Lab Test Test For
ALP bone metabolism marker
UA gout
RF rheumatoid arthritis
Calcium mineral calcium imbalance
Magnesium mineral - magnesium imbalance
ANA systemic lupus erythematosus
ESR general inflammation test
Synovial fluid analysis-arthritis
Uric acid gout

___________ is a bone infection that can be caused by improper phlebotomy technique

Osteomyelitis

Name four lab tests that are used to assess for muscle disorders

aldolase, AST, troponin, myoglobin, CK, CK-MM, CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase

What are the divisions of the central nervous system?

The divisions of the central nervous system are the brain and spinal cord

Name five lab tests that are used to assess for digestive disorders

CBC, amylase, lipase, ALP, ALT, AST, GGT, bilirubin, HBsAg, ammonia, hepatitis antibody, carotene, O & P, gastrin, occult blood, stool culture

Describe the difference between external and internal respiration

External respiration is the exchange of gases in the lungs, whereas internal respiration is the exchange of gases at the cellular level

What does the endocrine system do?

maintains homeostasis in conjunction with the nervous system by producing hormones

Name the three types of joints and give examples of each

Joint type Examples
Immovable-facial bones, cranium (synarthrosis)
Partially movable-vertebrae (amphiarthrosis)
Free moving-elbow, shoulder, knee (diarthrosis)

The term to define the overall well-being of the body is:

homeostasis

The functional unit of the nervous system is

neuron

ATP is found in which part of the cell?

mitochondria

Which type of muscle is involved in hemostasis

smooth

Blood is considered to be which type of tissue?

connective

In which system does hematopoiesis occur?

skeletal

Which is not a lab test that assesses for muscle disorders?

C & S

Which is not a lab test that assesses for disorders of the integumentary system?

BUN

Hepatitis involves the:

Liver

Which is not a lab test to assess for liver problems?

ESR

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