contains the stomach, small and large intestines, spleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and kidneys (all but the kidneys are within the peritoneal cavity).
is a movement that takes a body part further away from the central axis
is a movement that takes a body part closer to the central axis
secretes steroid hormones
inner part of adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine under the direction of the autonomic nervous system
a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex
sensory neurons that receive stimulation from specialized cells within their sensory organ then transmit information to spinal cord neurons, allowing sensory information to ascend to the brain
a muscle that contracts while another relaxes
a corticosteroid hormone that is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland regulates salt, potassium and water intake
tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood
amino acid derivatives
Hormones that are synthesized in a few simple steps from an amino acid molecule; an example is epinephrine, which is released from the adrenal medulla and synthesized from tryosine.
a joint that is partially moveable
ex. joints at the different articulations of the vertebra column
a term reference that health professionals use when noting body planes, positions, or directions; the person is assumed to be standing upright (erect), facing forward, feet pointed forward and slightly apart, with arms at the sides and palms facing forward; the patient is visualized in this pose when applying any other term of reference
a muscle that relaxes while another contracts
of or near the head end or toward the front plane of the body
secreted by the posterior pituitary gland which aids in water re-absorption by the kidney
middle layer of brain & spinal cord
hyaline cartilage that covers ends of bones in synovial joints
autonomic motor system
governs involuntary activities of visceral muscles including glandular secretions, heart function and digestive function: INVOLUNTRAY
cardiac (striated involuntary) muscle
is found in the heart. Cardiac muscle cells do not need stimulation by the nervous system to start a contraction.
a semiliquid mass of partially digested food that passes from the stomach through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum
refers to all the cellular material except the plasma membrane and the nucleus
the deep vascular inner layer of the skin
a joint so articulated as to move freely
further away from the point of attachment of the structure in question
distal convoluted tubule
Between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct; Selective reabsorption and secretion occur here, most notably to regulate reabsorption of water and sodium
refers to the back surface of the body
Also called adrenaline, a hormone that stimulates body systems in response to stress.
forms flat sheets and is most often found on surfaces where exchange with exchange with the environment takes place, such as the lining of the gut or where rapid regeneration must occur to protect internal structures.
stimulate uterine lining growth; development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics
is straightening the joint
is the exchange of gases in the lungs
act of bending a joint
vertical division (front and back)
little ball-shaped cluster of capillaries located at the top of each nephron
between the cells and contains fibers
the formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the bone marrow)
the dynamic steady state we think of when we refer to good health
is the exchange of gases at the cellular level
toward the side
is toward the middle
are the cell's power plants, burning fuels such as sugar and fat with oxygen to supply energy for the cell in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Neurons and muscle cells contain very high numbers of mitochondria
fatty substance/sheath that protects the axon
functional unit of the kidney
neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
Where the neuron releases a chemical (called a neurotransmitter) on the muscle surface, causing a chemical changes within the muscle that lead to contraction
are excitable cells, meaning they can be stimulated to undergo electrical and chemical changes. Found in the brain, the spinal cord and throughout the body.
chemical messenger sent across a synapse which allows two neurons to communicate
neurotransmitter that is involved in arousal and the fight-or-flight system (also mood, sleep, and learning)
contains DNA. DNA is arranged in functional units called genes, and genes are linked together in long strings called chromosomes. All cells in the body begin with a nucleus, but red blood cells extrude theirs at maturity
bone forming cells
located one on each side of the uterus in the female pelvis, functioning to secrete estrogen and progesterone
the expulsion of an ovum from the ovary (usually midway in the menstrual cycle)
when hemoglobin is bound to oxygen; primary form of oxygen transport in the blood
stimulates contractions of uterus, milk ejections, labor; stops postpartum bleeding
peripheral nervous system
all the nerves located outside the central nervous system; connects the central nervous system to all parts of the body
encloses the cell and tightly regulates the flow of materials in and out of it
is the back surface of the body
is lying on the abdomen facing down.
closer to the point of attachment
Vertical plane that divides the body into a right and left portion.
skeletal (striated voluntary) muscle
is the most widespread type, constituting all the muscles that move the skeleton
smooth (non striated involuntary) muscles
lines blood and lymph vessels within the body just below the epithelial tissue, such as around the gut, the lungs, and the circulatory and reproductive systems.
somatic motor system
innervates skeletal muscle, responsible for voluntary movement, generally subject to conscious control
Groups of similar structure cells that have a common function
horizontal division (top and bottom)
is the front surface of the body
arterial blood gas
angiotensin converting enzyme
anti diuretic hormone
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
blood urea nitrogen
C & S
culture and sensitivity
complete blood count
central nervous system
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
ear, nose and throat
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
fasting blood sugar (glucose)
fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test
hepatitis B surface antigen
human chorionic gonadotropin
hepatitis C virus
human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS virus)
infant respiratory distress syndrome
magnetic resonance imaging
O & P
ova and parasites
pelvic inflammatory disease
rapid plasma reagin (test for syphilis)
systemic lupus erythematosus
sexually transmitted disease
toxic shock syndrome
upper respiratory infection
urinary tract infection
lying on the back with the face turned upward; inclined
synaptic cleft (synapse)
Tiny gap that separates one neuron from another or a neuron from the cell it stimulates.
an immovable joint
the fluid-filled space between the articulating bones of a synovial joint, allowing the joint to be freely movable
The human body is composed of four basic types of tissues
Name the four basic types of tissues that compose the human body and give an example of each
Epithelial-lining of gut, surface of the eye
Nerve-neurons, spinal cord
Describe the "anatomic position"
The anatomic position is the body erect, facing forward, arms at the sides, and palms forward.
What are body cavities?
Body cavities are spaces within the body that contain major organs
Name and describe the three body planes
Frontal-vertical division (front and back)
Sagittal- vertical division (left and right)
Transverse-horizontal division (top and bottom)
What is hematopoiesis?
is the formation of blood cells
Name three lab tests, and the disorder they test for, that are used for assess for bone and joint disorders
Lab Test Test For
ALP bone metabolism marker
RF rheumatoid arthritis
Calcium mineral calcium imbalance
Magnesium mineral - magnesium imbalance
ANA systemic lupus erythematosus
ESR general inflammation test
Synovial fluid analysis-arthritis
Uric acid gout
___________ is a bone infection that can be caused by improper phlebotomy technique
Name four lab tests that are used to assess for muscle disorders
aldolase, AST, troponin, myoglobin, CK, CK-MM, CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase
What are the divisions of the central nervous system?
The divisions of the central nervous system are the brain and spinal cord
Name five lab tests that are used to assess for digestive disorders
CBC, amylase, lipase, ALP, ALT, AST, GGT, bilirubin, HBsAg, ammonia, hepatitis antibody, carotene, O & P, gastrin, occult blood, stool culture
Describe the difference between external and internal respiration
External respiration is the exchange of gases in the lungs, whereas internal respiration is the exchange of gases at the cellular level
What does the endocrine system do?
maintains homeostasis in conjunction with the nervous system by producing hormones
Name the three types of joints and give examples of each
Joint type Examples
Immovable-facial bones, cranium (synarthrosis)
Partially movable-vertebrae (amphiarthrosis)
Free moving-elbow, shoulder, knee (diarthrosis)
The term to define the overall well-being of the body is:
The functional unit of the nervous system is
ATP is found in which part of the cell?
Which type of muscle is involved in hemostasis
Blood is considered to be which type of tissue?
In which system does hematopoiesis occur?
Which is not a lab test that assesses for muscle disorders?
C & S
Which is not a lab test that assesses for disorders of the integumentary system?
Hepatitis involves the:
Which is not a lab test to assess for liver problems?
_____________ promotes the breakdown of glycogen back to glucose
Pancreatitis can be screened for by performing which lab test?
The functional unit of the kidney is known as the:
Microbiology may perform the following lab test for urologic disorders:
C & S
ABGs typically test for:
The hormone that regulates the amount of calcium and phosphorus in the circulation is :
Which hormone regulates water re-absorption by the kidney?
The hormone that can be detected by early pregnancy test is:
Thyroxine is otherwise know as:
Hormones are produced by which body system?