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Anatomy: Unit 2

(cranial bones) parietal (2)

forms most of the superior and lateral aspects of the skull

(cranial bones) frontal (1)

forms forehead, superior part of robits, and most of the anterior cranial fossa; contains sinuses

(cranial bones) (important marking: frontal) supraorbital foramina (notches)

allow the supraorbital arteries and nerves to pass

occipital (1)

forms posterior aspect and most of the base of the skull

(cranial bones) (important marking: occipital) foramen magnum

allows passage of the spinal cord from the brain stem to the vertebral canal

(cranial bones) (important marking: occipital) hypoglossal canals

allow passage of the hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII)

(cranial bones) (important marking: occipital) occipital condyles

articulate with the atlas (first vertebrae)

(cranial bones) (important marking: occipital) external occipital protuberance and nuchal lines

sites of muscle attachment

(cranial bones) (important marking: occipital) external occipital crest

attachment site of ligamentum nuchae

(cranial bones) temporal (2)

forms inferolateral aspects of the skull and contributes to the middle cranial fossa; has squamous, mastoid, tympanic, and petrous regions

(cranial bones) (important marking: temporal) zygomatic process

helps to form the zygomatic arch, which forms the prominence of the cheek

(cranial bones) (important marking: temporal) mandibular fossa

articular point of the mandibular condyle

(cranial bones) (important marking: temporal) external acoustic meatus)

canal leading from the external ear to the eardrum

(cranial bones) (important marking: temporal) styloid process

attachment site for several neck muscles and for a ligament to the hyoid bone

(cranial bones) (important marking: temporal) mastoid process

attachment site for several neck and tongue muscles

(cranial bones) (important marking: temporal) stylomastoid foramen

allows cranial nerve VII (facial nerve) to pass

(cranial bones) (important marking: temporal) jugular foramen

allows passage of the internal jugular vein and cranial nerves IX, X, and XI

(cranial bones) (important marking: temporal) internal acoustic meatus

allows passage of cranial nerves VII and VIII

(cranial bones) (important marking: temporal) carotid canal

allows passage of the internal carotid artery

(cranial bones) sphenoid

keystone of the cranium; contributes to the middle cranial fossa and orbits; main parts are the body, greater wings, lesser wings, and pterygoid process

(cranial bones) (important marking: sphenoid) sella turcica

hypophyseal fossa portion is the seat of the pituitary gland

(cranial bones) (important marking: sphenoid) optic canals

allow passage of cranial nerve II and the ophthalmic arteries

(cranial bones) (important marking: sphenoid) superior orbital fissures

allow passage of cranial nerves III, IV, VI, part of V (ophthalmic division), and ophthalmic vein

(cranial bones) (important marking: sphenoid) foramen rotundum (2)

allows passage of the maxillary division of cranial nerve V

(cranial bones) (important marking: sphenoid) foramen ovale (2)

allows passage of the mandibular division of cranial nerve V

(cranial bones) (important marking: sphenoid) foramen spinosum (2)

allows passage of the middle meningeal artery

(cranial bones) ethmoid (1)

helps to form the anterior cranial fossa; forms part of the nasal septum and the lateral walls and roof of the nasal cavity; contributes to the medial wall of the robit

(cranial bones) (important marking: ethmoid) crista galli

attachment point for the falx cerebri, a dural membrane fold

(cranial bones) (important marking: ethmoid) cribiform plates

allow passage of filaments of the olfactory nerves (cranial nerve I)

(cranial bones) (important marking: ethmoid) superior and middle nasal conchae

form part of lateral walls of nasal cavity; increase turbulence of air flow

(facial bones) mandible (1)

lower jaw

(facial bones) (important marking: mandible) coronoid processes

insertion points for the temporalis muscles

(facial bones) (important marking: mandible) mandibular condyles

articulate with the temporal bones in the jaw (temporomandibular) joints

(facial bones) (important marking: mandible) mandibular symphysis

medial fusion point of the mandibular bones

(facial bones) (important marking: mandible) alveoli

sockets for the teeth

(facial bones) (important marking: mandible) mandibular foramina

permit the inferior alveolar nerves to pass

(facial bones) (important marking: mandible) mental foramina

allow blood vessels and nerves to pass to the chin and lower lip

(facial bones) maxilla (2)

keystone bones of the face; form the upper jaw and parts of the hard palate, orbits, and nasal cavity walls

(facial bones) (important marking: maxilla) alveoli

sockets for teeth

(facial bones) (important marking: maxilla) zygomatic process

helps form the zygomatic arches

(facial bones) (important marking: maxilla) palatine process

forms the anterior hard palate; meet medially in middle palatine suture

(facial bones) (important marking: maxilla) frontal process

forms part of lateral aspect of bridge of nose

(facial bones) (important marking: maxilla) incisive fossa

permits blood vessels and nerves to pass through hard palate (fused palatine processes)

(facial bones) (important marking: maxilla) inferior orbital fissure

permits maxillary branch of cranial nerve V, the zygomatic nerve, and blood vessels to pass

(facial bones) (important marking: maxilla) infraorbital foramen

allows passage of infraorbital nerve to skin of face

(facial bones) zygomatic (2)

form the cheek and part of the orbit

(facial bones) nasal (2)

form the bridge of the nose

(facial bones) lacrimal (2)

form part of the medial orbit wall

(facial bones) (important marking: lacrimal) lacrimal fossa

houses the lacrimal sac, which helps to drain tears into the nasal cavity

(facial bones) palatine (2) form posterior part of the hard palate and a small part of nasal cavity and orbit walls

vomer (1) inferior part of the nasal septum

(facial bones) inferior nasal concha (2)

form part of the lateral walls of the nasal cavity

(facial bones) auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes (2 each)

found in middle ear cavity; involved in sound transmission

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