Chapter 14: The autonomic nervous system

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Sympathetic or parasympathetic: Short preganglionic, long postganglionic fibers.

Sympathetic

Sympathetic or parasympathetic: Collateral ganglia

Parasympathetic

Sympathetic or parasympathetic: increases blood pressure

Sympathetic

Sympathetic or Parasympathetic: decreases heart rate

Parasympathetic

Sympathetic or Parasympathetic: erection of the penis

Parasympathetic

Sympathetic or Parasympathetic: Stimulates ciliary muscles of the eye.

Parasympathetic

Sympathetic or Parasympathetic: active after you have had a meal

Parasympathetic

The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of ________.

A)

parasympathetic innervation
B)

sympathetic stimulation
C)

vagus nerve activity
D)

neurosecretory substances

B) sympathetic stimulation

In contrast to the somatic nervous system, the autonomic nervous system ________.

A)

has two efferent neurons
B)

has two afferent neurons
C)

stimulates its effector cells
D)

has both afferent and efferent fibers

A) has two efferent neurons

Preparing the body for the ʺfight-or-flightʺ response is the role of the ________.

A)

sympathetic nervous system
B)

cerebrum
C)

parasympathetic nervous system
D)

somatic nervous system

A) sympathetic nervous system

The parasympathetic nervous system is characterized by peripheral ganglia near the ________.

A)

organs and by short postganglionic fibers
B)

organs and by long postganglionic fibers
C)

spinal cord and by short postganglionic fibers
D)

spinal cord and by long postganglionic fibers

A) organs and by short postganglionic fibers

A drug that might be used specifically to reduce heart rate in cardiac patients could be ________.

A)

anticholinesterase
B)

epinephrine
C)

norepinephrine
D)

a beta-blocker

D) a beta blocker

The parasympathetic ganglion that serves the eye is the ________.

A)

ciliary ganglion
B)

pterygopalatine ganglion
C)

submandibular ganglion
D)

otic ganglion

A) ciliary ganglion

Cardiovascular effects of the sympathetic division include all except ________.

A)

constriction of most blood vessels
B)

dilation of the vessels serving the skeletal muscles
C)

increase of heart rate and force
D)

dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera

D) dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera

Over 90% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from cranial nerve number ________.

A)

V
B)

VII
C)

X
D)

XII

C) X

The ʺresting and digestingʺ division of the autonomic nervous system is the ________.

A)

parasympathetic division
B)

sympathetic division
C)

somatic division
D)

peripheral nervous system

A) parasympathetic division

Control of temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the ________.

A)

medulla
B)

cerebellum
C)

hypothalamus
D)

thalamus

C) hypothalamus

Which of these effectors is not directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?

A)

smooth muscle
B)

cardiac muscle
C)

skeletal muscle
D)

most glands

C) skeletal muscle

Which of the following is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation?

A)

salivation
B)

dilation of the pupils
C)

increased peristalsis of the digestive viscera
D)

relaxation of the urethral sphincter

B) dilation of the pupils

The site of origin of the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system is the ________.

A)

thoracolumbar region of the spinal cord
B)

higher brain centers
C)

sympathetic chain
D)

brain stem and the sacral region of the cord

D) brain stem and sacral region of the cord

Sympathetic responses generally are widespread because ________.

A)

inactivation of ACh is fairly slow
B)

single preganglionic axons make multiple synapses with ganglionic neurons
C)

preganglionic fibers are short
D)

preganglionic fibers are long

B) single preganglionic axons make multiple synapses with ganglionic neurons

Sympathetic nerves may leave the spinal cord at which vertebrae?

A)

second cervical
B)

third lumbar
C)

first coccyx
D)

first thoracic

D) first thoracic

Autonomic ganglia contain ________.

A)

an outer connective tissue capsule around the cell bodies of preganglionic motor neurons
B)

synapses between postganglionic fibers and their effectors
C)

the cell bodies of motor neurons
D)

both somatic afferent and efferent neurons

C) The cell bodies of motor neurons

The parasympathetic fibers of the ________ nerves innervate smooth muscles of the lens of the eye, the muscles that cause the eye to bulge to accommodate close vision.

A)

optic
B)

oculomotor
C)

trochlear
D)

abducens

B) oculomotor

Fibers that enter and leave the sympathetic chain without synapsing form structures called ________.

A)

white rami communicantes
B)

gray rami communicantes
C)

spinal nerves
D)

splanchnic nerves

D) splanchnic nerves

Which is not a plexus of the vagus nerve?

A)

cardiac
B)

pulmonary
C)

celiac
D)

esophageal

C) celiac

Visceral reflex arcs differ from somatic in that ________.

A)

visceral arcs contain two sensory neurons
B)

somatic arcs contain one additional component that visceral arcs do not possess
C)

visceral arcs involve two motor neurons
D)

visceral arcs do not use integration centers

C) visceral arcs involve two motor neurons

The parasympathetic tone ________.

A)

prevents unnecessary heart deceleration
B)

accelerates activity of the digestive tract
C)

determines normal activity of the urinary tract
D)

causes blood pressure to rise

C) determines normal activity of the urinary tract

The autonomic nervous system ________.

A)

cannot be self-controlled
B)

has one primary division
C)

is not affected by drugs
D)

is directly controlled by the reticular formation of the brain stem

D) is directly controlled by the reticular formation of the brain stem

The white rami ________.

A)

are found only in the C1‐T1 cord segments
B)

are unmyelinated
C)

carry preganglionic axons to the sympathetic chain
D)

carry postganglionic fibers to the periphery

C) carry preganglionic axons to the sympathetic chain

Beta-blockers ________.

A)

increase a dangerously low heart rate
B)

attach mainly to the β1 receptors of cardiac muscle
C)

have widespread sympathetic effects
D)

are potent antidepressants

B) attach mainly to the β1 receptors of cardiac muscle

Erection of the penis or clitoris ________.

A)

is primarily under sympathetic control
B)

is primarily under parasympathetic control
C)

is the result of coordinated activation by both sympathetic and parasympathetic input
D)

depends very little on autonomic activation

B) is primarily under parasympathetic control

Which is a uniquely sympathetic function?

A)

regulation of pupil size
B)

regulation of cardiac rate
C)

regulation of respiratory rate
D)

regulation of body temperature

D) regulation of body temperature

Raynaudʹs disease ________.

A)

is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities
B)

is induced by heat stress
C)

occurs primarily in association with injury to the spinal cord
D)

is frequently life-threatening

A) is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities

The mass reflex reaction ________.

A)

is also known as autonomic areflexia
B)

represents a return of reflex activity with no controls from higher centers
C)

usually precedes spinal shock
D)

results from overexcitatory input from the cortex

B) represents a return of reflex activity with no controls from higher centers

In aging, autonomic inefficiency is often due to ________.

A)

clogging of preganglionic axon terminals with filaments
B)

cerebral hemorrhage
C)

major loss of axons
D)

peripheral vascular changes

A) clogging of preganglionic axon terminals with filaments

Sympathetic fibers leave the spinal cord in the ________.

A)

craniosacral regions, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine
B)

thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete acetylcholine
C)

craniosacral region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete acetylcholine
D)

thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine

D) thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine

Where would you not find an autonomic ganglion?

A)

in the head
B)

in the cervical region
C)

close to the visceral effectors they serve
D)

in the armpit

D) in the armpit

Sympathetic division stimulation causes ________.

A)

decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
B)

increased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure
C)

increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
D)

decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure

C) increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure

The smooth muscle of the digestive viscera is served largely by the ________.

A)

lumbar splanchnic nerves
B)

cephalic plexus
C)

pelvic nerves
D)

tenth cranial nerve

D) the tenth cranial nerve

The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is the ________.

A)

sympathetic trunk
B)

phrenic nerve
C)

vagus nerve
D)

sacral nerve

C) vagus nerve

Parasympathetic functions include ________.

A)

a stimulation of heart rate and force of contraction
B)

allowing the body to cope with an external threat
C)

constriction of bronchioles
D)

mobilizing storage energy sources

C) constriction of bronchioles

All preganglionic axons of the autonomic nervous system release ________.

A)

dopamine
B)

serotonin
C)

the same transmitter as the only one released by the sympathetic postganglionic axons
D)

the same transmitter as the one released by parasympathetic postganglionic axons

D) the same transmitter as the one released by parasympathetic postganglionic axons

Emotions influence autonomic reactions primarily through integration in the ________.

A)

lateral horn of the spinal cord
B)

hypothalamus
C)

lateral geniculate of the thalamus
D)

inferior colliculus

B) hypothalaumus

The possibility of control over autonomic responses is demonstrated by ________.

A)

split brain studies
B)

stress-induced hypertension
C)

biofeedback
D)

nightmares

C) biofeedback

The vagus nerve does not innervate the ________.

A)

pancreas
B)

kidneys
C)

parotid gland
D)

gallbladder

C) parotoid gland

Sweat glands are innervated by the ________ fibers alone.

sympathetic

The ________ division alone stimulates the lens of the eye.

parasympathetic

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