How do anabolic steroids work and what is the effect on the athlete.
They stimulate the hormone testosterone. This hormone is found naturally in both women and men. There is a much higher concentration in men compared to women. The hormone plays a crucial role in muscle development. The effect is that the athlete is a lot more muscular.
List the negative effects of steroid use.
Impaired natural production of testosterone.
Decreased testicular volume.
Increased levels of aggression and hostility.
In women- suffer from a deeper voice, facial hair and menstrual irregularities.
Increased risk of heart disease and liver disfunction.
Why would athletes be tempted to use steroids.
To give them that edge in competition. If they have trained their whole life in a sport and they are not good enough, so they turn to drug use to give them that assistance.
What is blood doping.
Blood doping increases the oxygen carrying capacity of the haemoglobin. 0.5L of blood is removed from the athlete and the red blood cells are taken out from the blood plasma. The blood plasma is then introduced back into the body, whilst the red blood cells are stored. The body then creates more red blood cells to compensate for the loss. The day of competition the red blood cells are added into the blood.
What is the function of erythropoietin (EPO).
EPO stimulates the production of red blood cells. But since both EPO and red blood cells occur naturally in the body, there is no way to detect them.
List the negative consequences of blood doping.
Increases the thickness of the blood.
Increases the risk of blood clotting and heart attack.
Increases the risk of a stroke.
Even death may occur.