the highness or lowness of a sound
from one letter up or down to its next occurence
From C to B. (7 notes)
Indicates the precise pitch desired. An arrangement of five lines and four spaces that can be extended through the use of ledger lines.
lines written above or below the staff representing a continuation of the staff, used to indicate pitches above or below the staff
Must appear at the beginning of the staff in order to indicate which pitches are to be associated with which lines and spaces.
A combination of two staves joined by a brace, with the top and bottom staves using treble and bass clefs, respectively.
A specific pattern of small steps (called half steps) and larger ones (called whole steps) encompassing an octave.
The distance from a key on the piano to the very next key, white or black.
Skips the very next key on the piano keyboard and goes instead to the following one.
A symbol that raises or lowers a pitch by a half or whole step.
Identifies the first degree of a scale.
A four-note scalar pattern.
Key of G major
Refers to the major scale that begins on G.
the sharps or flats that follow the clef and indicate the key
two different names for the same pitch
To write or play music in some key other than the original.
circle of fifths
A diagram like the face of a clock that aids in the memorization of key signatures
natural minor scale
A minor scale formation, similar to a major scale with lowered 3, 6 and 7.
harmonic minor scale
a minor scale with a raised 7th scale degree
Major and minor keys that share the same key signature.
Major and minor keys that share the same starting note.
The measurement of the distance in pitch between two notes.
Separates pitches that are sounded simultaneously
Separates pitches that are sounded in succession
In discussing intervals, the term used instead of 1.
In discussing intervals, the term used instead of 8.
intervals an octave or less
Intervals greater than an octave
A modifier used only in connection with unisons, 4ths, 5ths, 8ves, and their compounds (11ths, and so on).
raised or enlarged. generally refers to the raising of a pitch by one half step
(of musical intervals) reduction by a semitone of any perfect or minor musical interval
the interval of an augmented 4th or a diminished 5th (spanning 3 whole tones).
When one puts the lower note above the upper one (or the reverse).
pleasing to the ear
not pleasing to the ear
the lowest voice
recurring at regular intervals
Always adds to the duration one-half the value of the note, rest, or dot that precedes it.
the basic pulse of a musiclal passage
the rate which the beat occurs
the pattern of beats
the group of beats
A notation indicating the end of a measure, depicted by a vertical line through the staff.
duple, triple, and quadruple
The number of beats in each measure
Two-beat measure: Strong-weak.
Three-beat measure: Strong-weak-weak.
Four-beat measure: Strong-weak-less strong - weak.
the pattern of stresses
division of the beat
Durations in a musical passage that are shorter than the beat.
beats divided into two equal parts
beats divided into three equal parts
A symbol that tells the performer how many beats will occur in each measure, what note value will represent the beat, and whether the beat is simple or compound.
grouplet (or tuplet)
Refers to the division of an undotted value into some number of equal parts other than two, four, eight, and so on or the division of a dotted value into some number of equal parts other than three, six, twelve, and so on.
Used to connect durations shorter than a quarter note when the durations occur within the same beat.
The chord member that is in the lowest sounding voice.
A method of abbreviated notation used in the Baroque era.
The transfer of the lowest note to some higher octave.
A chord with the 3rd as the lowest tone.
A chord with the 5th in the bass.
lead sheet symbols
Used in jazz and most popular music to indicate chords to be played under a given melody.
Major Seventh Chord (M7)
Major triad with a M7 above the root.
Major-Minor Chord (Mm7)
Major triad with a m7 above the root.
Minor Seventh Chord (m7)
Minor triad with a m7 above the root.
Term used to group together all pitches that have an identical sound or that are identical except for the octave or octaves that separate them.
A chord with the root notated as the lowest tone.
Seventh chord (M7)
A triad with another 3rd added above the 5th of the triad. The added note is a 7th above the root.
A chord structure built of thirds.
A seventh chord with the 7th as the lowest tone.
A three-note chord consisting of a 5th divided into two superimposed 3rds. The bottom note of the 5th is the root, and the top note is the 5th.