Life expectancy in the adult male has increased ___ years since the beginning of the 20th century.
Elderly patients account for ___% of all hospital care days in the U.S.
__ in __ patients is over the age of 65
1 in 4
! Elderly & geriatric refers to pts over ___ yrs
Aged is over ___ yrs
! ____ is the maximal attainable age under optimal conditions
____ is typical longetivity under typical conditions
life span (110-115 yrs)
There is a ___% increase in risk for perioperative death with an age over 65
! Which is better a cross-sectional or longitudinal study?
What is stochastical in regards to aging?
Aging is a stochastical process
Stochastical is a random event with a certain amount of probability.
Are age-related changes and pathological changes synonymous?
(pathological changes occur d/t disease process & occur at a higher incidence with age but do not always occur)
Does gender matter in regards to systolic hypertension occuring with aging?
Why does it occur? (think heart not blood vessels)
-fibrosis of elastic tissues in the ventricular wall
How would an EKG appear that reflects ventricular hypertrophy?
R waves that are larger than normal in V leads
(R waves normally increase progressively from V1 to V6)
Describe how CO is changed in the elderly
CO may decline but isn't noticed at rest d/t a decrease in demand
(under load this decline becomes noticeable)
How does aging affect:
-response to beta agonists
-response to beta antagonists
How does this affect them under anesthesia?
-less response to beta agonists
-preserved response to beta antagonists
-decreased parasympathetic tone
-increased sympathetic tone (to maintain CO)
when you put them to sleep & remove the basal sympathetic tone you get a bigger drop in BP
Elderly pts cannot compensate by increasing ___ & ___, then compensate by ___
cannot increase HR & CO
Does the carotid sinus or carotid bodies respond to stretch?
Why are elderly prone to orthostatic hypotension?
carotid stretch baroreceptor reflex is blunted
! How are compliance and elasticity related?
The bony thorax is ___ elastic & ___ compliant with age
less elastic, more compliant
! Describe elasticity & compliance of alveoli.
How does this affect the size & stability of the alveoli?
less elastic, more compliant
alveoli become dilated & collapse before FRC is reached (CV is increased) and air trapping occurs (like COPD)
What happens to the surface area of alveoli with aging?
(from 75 m² to 60 m² by age 70)
! How do the following change with age?
-FRC: ~ (ERV drops)
-TLC: ↓ (slowly)
-CV: ↑ (position dependent)
PaO2 declines from 95 to ___ by age 75
Why is HPV blunted in the elderly?
d/t stiff parenchyma that prevent the arteries from constricting
In the elderly, renal mass is ___ mostly in the ___ & is ____ by _____
decreased mostly in the cortex & is replaced by fat & fibrotic tissue
In the elderly:
Cr clearance ___
creatinine production ___
serum Cr ___
Cr clearance ↓s
creatinine production ↓s
serum Cr ~
In the elderly:
Hepatic enzyme function ___
Hepatic mass ___
remains intact & functional
decreases (decreased mass is why drug clearance impaired)
In the elderly plasma esterases ___ (gender)
decrease more in men than women
(older men act like pregnant women in regards to plasma esterases)
What neurons tend to be lost more in the elderly (neuronal loss is highly selective)
those that are most metabolically active
What happens to NT production in the elderly?
What are 4 examples of NTs affected?
What happens to enzymes that metabolise NTs?
What are 2 examples?
-ACh, NE, Dopamine, Tyrosine
Why would a low MAP be even more detrimental in the elderly? (think neuro)
the CBF autoregulation curve is often right-shifted but remains intact
(from 50-150 MAP to 80-180 to maintain constant CBF)
How is the hyperventilation-CO₂ response to CBF affected by age?
it remains intact
What are meissner's corpuscles & how are they altered by aging?
mechanoreceptors (ie touch, pain)
exponentially decreased (less sensation)
! In the elderly:
The number of motor end plates ____
The number of ACh receptors ____
NMB doses ____
increases (negates the change)
stay the same
The afferentiation threshold ____ in the elderly
Which sensory modality is affected the most/least
most: laryngeal reflex & taste
least: simple pain
In the elderly:
Adrenal mass size ___
NE concentrations ___
β-adrenergic response ___
α-adrenergic response ___
increase 2-3x (paradoxically)
stays the same
Why is CHF in the elderly so concerning to providing anesthesia?
-have high adrenergic tone & low reserve that when blunted can lead to catastrophic results
! The volume of distribution of water soluble drugs in the elderly is ___
Vd of lipid soluble drugs is ___
decreased (more sensitive to versed)
increased (longer duration of fentanyl)
less body water, more body fat
____ is what the drug does to the body
____ is what the body does to the drug
pharmacodynamics (d to b)
pharmacokinetics (b to d)
Know this chart backwards & forwards
(X axis, slope, potency, Y axis, etc.)
Why are elderly more sensitive to volatile anesthetics?
less brain mass to anesthetize
Which volatile anesthetic might be best in the elderly?
-low b:g PC = rapid equilibrium
What is the fundamental principle to follow in providing anesthesia to geriatrics?
work toward prompt and complete post op recovery (LOC, temp, etc.)
What type of anesthesia delivery is ideal for TURP because it will help in early detection of TURP syndrome?
(but BP changes must be anticipated)
(TURP syndrome = hyponatremia d/t irrigation fluids)
MAC of volatiles should be decreased ___ to ___ % per decade
___ levels may be predictive of risk for perioperative morbidity & mortality d/t co-existing disease in the elderly
____ may be more important than illness indices, and may be used as an index of success post operatively
(exercise tolerance, etc.)
Anesthetic technique is much less important than good ____ in elderly pts
Organ function declines ___% per year starting at age __
1% starting at age 30
! Does plasma creatinine increase in the elderly?
(GFR decreases but creatinine production also decreases d/t less muscle mass)
Elderly are prone to ___-natremia
(less able to retain sodium with declined renal function)
You need to be careful not to tilt the head back too far when intubating elderly d/t ____ insufficiency
vertebrobasilar artery may be insufficient (can cause stroke if occluded)
How would you adjust preop med dosages in the elderly?
be careful, start with lower dose
(better would be to let MDs order & have nurses give)
What should you consider first with postop confusion in the elderly? (x2)
____ is the most important risk factor for delirium
What is the pathophysiology of delirium?
Delirium is a common complication of ____
co existing dimentia
disturbance in neurotransmitter activity
How is delirium treated?
identify & treat the cause if possible
(ie physostigmine for anticholinergic syndrome)
Post op delirium occurs in 10-60% of ___ surgeries
Delirium risk also increases with ___ & ___ surgeries
10-60% of hip fracture surgeries
bypass & cataract
Dimentia occurs in just 1% of people at age ___
It ____ every ___ yrs
30-50% incidence at ___ yrs
doubles every 5 years
at 85 yrs
Determine if the following are cortical or sub-cortical dementias (picture)
Name 3 cortical dementias
What are the differences between each?
Pick's Disease = degeneration of frontal & temporal lobe
Alzheimers = a diffuse degeneration
Frontal Lobar = frontal lobe degeneration
Name 3 sub-cortical dimentias
Creutzfeldt Jacob's (caused by eating human brain)
What are 4 potentially treatable causes of dementia?
Vit B12 deficiency
The CT scan shows ___ & ___ in alzheimer's pts
ventricular dilation & cortical atrophy
___ is characterized by a selective destruction of cholinergic neurons in the brain occuring early in the disease
Choline acetyltransferase is decreased as much as __%
What neurotransmitter is involved in Alzheimer's disease?
How is the anesthetic plan altered for alzheimer's pts? (x2)
-avoid centrally acting drugs (sedation, atropine, etc.)
-use minimal anesthesia & use drugs that don't last long
____: pathologically excessive (and often incoherent) talking
____: meaningless repetition of another person's spoken words as a symptom of a psychiatric disorder
____: involuntary repetition of words, phrases, or sentences
___ is a frontal lobe cortical dementia that occurs less often than Alzheimer's & impairs the ability to plan & initiate goals & is associated with logorrhea, echolalia, & palalia
_____ is a progressive infectious dementia
_____ can cause dementia, gait disturbances, urinary incontinence, & cognitive declines & is treated by placing a shunt
normal pressure hydrocephalus
Parkinson's disease is characterized by the loss of ____ fibers normally present in the ____ of the brain
dopaminergic fibers in the substantia nigra
Males between the age of 40-70 are more prone to getting ____
The following are symptoms of Parkinson's:
-___ spontaneous movements
-___ of extremities
-rhythmic resting ___ (___ rolling)
-d___ & d___
-decreased spontaneous movements
-rigidity of extremities
-rhythmic resting tremor (pill rolling)
-dementia & depression
What happens if levadopa is withheld preop in an Parkinson's pt?
can lead to skeletal muscle rigidity that can impair breathing
___ & ___ can occur in Parkinson's pts d/t the disease & the treatment (levadopa, MAOIs)
____ dysfunction in Parkinson's pts can lead to increased risk for aspiration
____ help to control resting tremors in Parkinson's pts
____ crosses the BBB & is converted to dopamine
____ increases the central delivery of levodopa
____ is a good premedication & for intraop sedation in Alzheimer's pts
What vasopressors should/shouldn't you use in Parkinson's pts?
They are often on MAOI or COMT inhibitors & indirect acting agents would cause issues
Ketamine + Parkinson's =
exaggerated sympathetic response
How does prolonged bedrest affect hemodynamics?
decreases circulating plasma volume
(decreased CO & ortho hypoTN)
! Vomitting & diarrhea cause ___-tonic dehydration
(balance of water & Na loss)
! Sweating causes ___-tonic dehydration
(water loss exceeds sodium loss)
! Diuretics cause ___-tonic dehydration
(Na loss exceeds water loss)
! Hyper- vs hypo-tonic dehydration Na levels
hypo- Na less than 135 mEq/L
Iso- normal Na
hyper- Na greater than 145 mEq/L
Bun/Cr ratio ___ indicated dehydration
Glaucoma with an IOP greater than ___ mmHg can cause retinal ischemia
___ is an age-related condition where the lens of the eye becomes stiff
Progeria is also called ____-____ syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder
Mean survival of progeria is ___ years
(death by 25 is common)
___ is a form of osteoarthrytis of the spine
Women lose ~50% of cancellous bone & 30% of cortical bone in their lifetime d/t osteoporosis
Men lose ~30% cancellous, 20% cortical
What is cancellous?
cancellous = spinal column & end of long bones