Chapter 15: Special sesnses

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Protects and shapes the eyeball; provides a sturdy anchoring site for extrinsic eye muscles.

Sclera

Blood vessels supply nutrition to all eye layers.

Choroid

Contains only cones; provides detailed color vision.

fovea centralis

Lacks photoreceptors; where optic nerve exits the eye.

optic disc (blind spot)

Consists of a pigmented layer and a neural layer.

Retina

Acts as a reflexively activated diaphragm to vary pupil size.

Iris

The only tissue in the body that can be transplanted from one person to another with little or
no rejection.

Cornea

Controls lens shape.

ciliary body

Holds the retina firmly against the pigmented layer.

posterior segment

Holds the retina firmly against the pigmented layer.

Anterior segment

Balance

Semicircular canals

The sensory layer of the eye.

Retina

The structure most responsible for focusing light rays that enter the eye.

Lens

Helps maintain the intraocular pressure; located in the anterior part of the eye.

Aqueous humor

Area of greatest visual acuity.

Fovea centralis

ear stones

otoliths

Connects the middle ear with the nasopharynx.

Pharyngotympanic tube

Separates external acoustic meatus from the middle ear.

Tympanic membrane

Contains utricle and saccule.

Vestibule

Detects linear acceleration.

Vestibule

A condition that can result from a deficiency of vitamin A.

night blindness

A condition of deafness that may result from otosclerosis.

conduction defness

An inflammation of the lining of the middle ear.

otitis media

A condition often leading to blindness due to increased intraocular pressure.

glaucoma

Hair cells receptive to changes in dynamic equilibrium are found in this structure.

Crista ampullaris

Gustatory cells are found in this structure.

Taste buds

Hair cells receptive to changes in static equilibrium are found in this structure.

macula

The receptors of olfaction are found in this structure.

Olfactory epithelium

What is the main function of the rods in the eye?
A) depth perception
B) color vision
C) vision in dim light
D) accommodation for near vision

c) vision in dim light

What structure regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye?
A) aqueous humor
B) lens
C) cornea
D) iris

D) iris

Receptors for hearing are located in the ________.
A) cochlea
B) semicircular canals
C) tympanic membrane
D) vestibule

A) cochlea

Which of the follow types of neurons are replaced throughout adult life?
A) olfactory receptor cells
B) retinal bipolar cells
C) retinal ganglion cells
D) auditory outer and inner hair cells

A) olfactory receptor cells

The oil component found in tears is produced by the ________.
A) lacrimal glands
B) ciliary gland
C) conjunctiva
D) tarsal glands

D) tarsal glands

The receptor for static equilibrium is the ________.
A) semicircular canals
B) macula
C) utricle
D) cochlear duct

B) macula

Farsightedness is more properly called ________.
A) myopia
B) hypopia
C) hyperopia
D) presbyopia

C) hyperopia

Seventy percent of all sensory receptors are located in the ________.
A) eye
B) ears
C) skin
D) nose

A) eye

Which of the following structures is not part of the external ear?
A) pinna
B) external acoustic meatus
C) tympanic membrane
D) pharyngotympanic tube

D) pharyngotympanic tube

Nerve fibers from the medial aspect of each eye ________.
A) go to the superior colliculus only
B) pass posteriorly without crossing over at the chiasma
C) divide at the chiasma, with some crossing and some not crossing
D) cross over to the opposite side at the chiasma

D) cross over to the opposite side at the chiasma

Ordinarily, it is not possible to transplant tissues from one person to another, yet corneas can
be transplanted without tissue rejection. This is because the cornea ________.
A) is not a living tissue
B) has no nerve supply
C) has no blood supply
D) does not contain connective tissue

C) has no blood supply

The oval window is connected directly to which passageway?
A) scala vestibuli
B) external acoustic meatus
C) pharyngotympanic tube
D) scala tympani

A) scala vestibuli

There are three layers of neurons in the retina. The axons of which of these neuron layers
form the optic nerves?
A) bipolar cells
B) ganglion cells
C) cone cells
D) rod cells

B) ganglion cells

The first "way station" in the visual pathway from the eye, after there has been partial
crossover of the fibers in the optic chiasma, is the ________.
A) superior colliculi
B) lateral geniculate body of the thalamus
C) visual cortex
D) temporal lobe

B) lateral geniculate body of the thalamus

As sound levels increase in the spiral organ (of Corti), ________.
A) outer hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane
B) outer hair cells bend the cilia away from the kinocilium
C) inner hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane
D) inner hair cells bend the cilia away from the kinocilium

A) outer hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane

Which of the following is true about gustatory receptors?
A) In order for a chemical to be sensed, it must be hydrophobic.
B) The receptors generate an action potential in response to chemical stimuli.
C) Complete adaptation occurs in about one to five minutes.
D) All gustatory receptors have the same threshold for activation.

C) Complete adaptation occurs in about one to five minutes.

Taste buds are not found ________.
A) in fungiform papillae
B) in filiform papillae
C) in circumvallate papillae
D) lining the buccal cavity

B) in filiform papillae

Select the correct statement about olfaction.
A) Olfactory receptors have a high degree of specificity toward a single type of chemical.
B) Some of the sensation of olfaction is actually one of pain.
C) Substances must be volatile and hydrophobic in order to activate olfactory receptors.
D) Olfactory adaptation is only due to fading of receptor cell response.

B) Some of the sensation of olfaction is actually one of pain

What prevents the eyelids from sticking together when the eyes close?
A) lacrimal fluid
B) ciliary gland secretions
C) tarsal gland secretions
D) conjunctival fluid

C) tarsal gland secretions

Which of the following taste sensations is incorrectly matched to the chemicals that produce
it?
A) sweetorganic substances such as sugar and some lead salts
B) souracids
C) saltymetal ions
D) bitteralkaloids
E) umamiamino acids glutamate and lysine

E) umamiamino acids glutamate and lysine

U.S. employees must wear hearing protection at ________ dB or above.
A) 100
B) 90
C) 80
D) 70

B) 90

What is a modiolus?
A) bone in the center of a semicircular canal
B) bone around the cochlea
C) a bone pillar in the center of the cochlea
D) a bony area around the junction of the facial, vestibular, and cochlear nerves

C) a bone pillar in the center of the cochlea

Which statement about malnutrition-induced night blindness is most accurate?
A) The most common cause is vitamin D deficiency.
B) Vitamin supplements can reverse degenerative changes.
C) Visual pigment content is reduced in both rods and cones.
D) The impaired vision is caused by reduced cone function.

B) Vitamin supplements can reverse degenerative changes.

Dark adaptation ________.
A) is much faster than light adaptation
B) results in inhibition of rod function
C) involves improvement of acuity and color vision
D) involves accumulation of rhodopsin

D) involves accumulation of rhodopsin

Conscious perception of vision probably reflects activity in the ________.
A) thalamus
B) occipital lobe of the cortex
C) chiasma
D) superior colliculus

B) occipital lobe of the cortex

In the visual pathways to the brain, the optic radiations project to the ________.
A) medial retina
B) lateral geniculate body
C) primary visual cortex
D) optic chiasma

C) primary visual cortex

Visual inputs to the ________ serve to synchronize biorhythms with natural light and dark.
A) pretectal nuclei
B) lateral geniculate body
C) superior colliculi
D) suprachiasmatic nucleus

D) suprachiasmatic nucleusInformation from balance

Information from balance receptors goes directly to the ________.
A) motor cortex
B) visual cortex
C) brain stem reflex centers
D) back muscles

C) brain stem reflex centers

Motion sickness seems to ________.
A) respond best to medication taken after salivation and pallor begins
B) respond best to medication that "boosts" vestibular inputs
C) result from activation of nausea centers in the brain stem
D) result from mismatch between visual and vestibular inputs

D) result from mismatch between visual and vestibular inputs

In the uterus ________.
A) the fetus cannot see and therefore visual cortical connections are not made
B) the fetus can see only light and shadow, but not forms, so partial visual connections are made
C) despite the fact that the fetus cannot see, functional visual cortical connections are established
D) scanty visual connections are made that proliferate greatly during infancy

C) despite the fact that the fetus cannot see, functional visual cortical connections are established

Most newborns ________.
A) are myopic
B) often use only one eye at a time
C) see in tones of red and green only
D) cry with copious tears

B) often use only one eye at a time

The blind spot of the eye is where ________.
A) more rods than cones are found
B) the macula lutea is located
C) only cones occur
D) the optic nerve leaves the eye

D) the optic nerve leaves the eye

The first vestiges of eyes in the embryo are called ________.
A) mesenchyme
B) optic discs
C) optic vesicles
D) optic cups

C) optic vesicles

Which pairing of terms is incorrectly related?
A) frequency: loudness
B) quality: frequency number
C) amplitude: sound intensity
D) frequency: wavelength number

A) frequency: loudness

Olfactory cells and taste buds are normally stimulated by ________.
A) substances in solution
B) stretching of the receptor cells
C) the movement of otoliths
D) movement of a cupula

A) substances in solution

Which of the following could not be seen as one looks into the eye with an ophthalmoscope?
A) macula lutea
B) optic chiasma
C) fovea centralis
D) optic disc

B) optic chiasma

The cells of the retina in which action potentials are generated are the ________.
A) rods and cones
B) bipolar cells
C) ganglion cells
D) amacrine cells

C) ganglion cells

During dark adaptation ________.
A) the sensitivity of the retina decreases
B) the rate of rhodopsin breakdown is accelerated
C) rhodopsin accumulates in the rods
D) the cones are activated

C) rhodopsin accumulates in the rods

Tinnitis, vertigo, and gradual hearing loss typify the disorder called ________.
A) Ménière's syndrome
B) conjunctivitis
C) strabismus
D) motion sickness

A) Ménière's syndrome

Which of the following is not a characteristic of olfactory receptor cells?
A) They are ciliated.
B) They are unipolar neurons.
C) They are chemoreceptors.
D) They have a short life span of about 60 days.

A) they are ciliated

An essential part of the maculae involved in static equilibrium is (are) the ________.
A) spiral organ (of Corti)
B) cupula
C) scala media
D) otoliths

D) otoliths

Which of the following is true about light and vision?
A) Human photoreceptors respond to light in the 100-300 nm range.
B) When we see the color of an object, all light is being absorbed by that object except for the
color being experienced.
C) Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation that slows down as it enters a medium of
relatively less density.
D) The greater the incident angle of light striking a refractive surface, the less the amount of light
bending.

B) When we see the color of an object, all light is being absorbed by that object except for the
color being experienced.

The tarsal plate of the eyelid ________.
A) is composed of connective tissue surrounding a thin cartilage plate
B) is connected to the superior rectus muscle
C) is connected to the levator palpebrae
D) assists in the act of winking

C) is connected to the levator palpebrae

Which of the following is true about photoreceptors?
A) Rods absorb light throughout the visual spectrum but confer only gray tone vision.
B) In dim light, images are focused directly on the rods in the fovea centralis.
C) Three types of color-sensitive photoreceptors exist: red, green, and yellow.
D) If all cones are stimulated equally, all colors are absorbed by the cones and the color
perceived is black.

A) Rods absorb light throughout the visual spectrum but confer only gray tone vision.

Select the correct statement about equilibrium.
A) The weight of the endolymph contained within the semicircular canals against the maculae is
responsible for static equilibrium.
B) Cristae respond to angular acceleration and deceleration.
C) Hair cells of both types of equilibrium hyperpolarize only, resulting in an increased rate of
impulse transmission.
D) Due to dynamic equilibrium, movement can be perceived if rotation of the body continues at
a constant rate.

B) Cristae respond to angular acceleration and deceleration.

The eye muscle that elevates and turns the eye laterally is the ________.
A) lateral rectus
B) superior oblique
C) inferior oblique
D) medial rectus

C) inferior oblique

The receptor membranes of gustatory cells are ________.
A) basal cells
B) gustatory hairs
C) fungiform papillae
D) taste buds

B) gustatory hairs

Light passes through the following structures in which order?
A) vitreous humor, lens, aqueous humor, cornea
B) cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor
C) cornea, vitreous humor, lens, aqueous humor
D) aqueous humor, cornea, lens, vitreous humor

B) cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor

Damage to the medial recti muscles would probably affect ________.
A) refraction
B) accommodation
C) convergence
D) pupil constriction

C) convergence

Which statement about sound localization is not true?
A) It requires processing at the cortical level.
B) It requires input from both ears.
C) It uses time differences between sound reaching the two ears.
D) It is difficult to discriminate sound sources in the midline.

A) It requires processing at the cortical level.

Which of the following is not a possible cause of conduction deafness?
A) impacted cerumen
B) middle ear infection
C) cochlear nerve degeneration
D) otosclerosis

C) cochlear nerve degeneration

Visual processing in the thalamus does not contribute significantly to ________.
A) depth perception
B) high-acuity vision
C) night vision
D) movement perception

C) night vision

Visible light fits between ________.
A) X rays and UV
B) gamma rays and infrared
C) microwaves and radio waves
D) UV and infrared

D) UV and infrared

Ceruminous glands are ________.
A) saliva glands found at the base of the tongue
B) modified apocrine sweat glands
C) glands found in the lateral corners of your eye
D) modified taste buds

B) modified apocrine sweat glands

The boundary of the retina is called the ________.

orra serrata

The synapse of the olfactory nerves with the mitral cells is called a ________.

glomerulus

The rocks found in one's head (calcium carbonate crystals) are called ________.

otoliths

The middle ear ossicle is the ________.

incus

The ________ are in the visual pathway and mediate the pupillary light reflexes.

pretectal nuclei

The apex of the ear hears sounds in the range of ________ Hz.

20

In the optic ________ the visual fields of the axons are all ipsilateral.

tract

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