The Biological Basis of Behavior

Created by Tim_H 

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Psych AP - Handout

Nervous System

What is an extensive network of specialized cells that carry information to and from all parts of the body called?

Neuron

What is the basic cell that makes up the nervous system and which receives and sends messages within that system called?

Axon

What are the long tube-like structures that receive messages from other neurons called?

Dendrites

On a neuron, what are the branch-like structures that receive messages from other neurons?

Soma

What is the cell body of the neuron, responsible for maintaining the life of the cell and containing the mitochondria?

Myelin Sheath

What are the fatty substances produced by certain glial cells that coat the axons of neurons to insulate, protect, and speed up the neural impulse?

Nerves

What are the bundles of axons in the body that travel together through the body known as?

Ions

What are the charged particles located inside and outside of the neuron called?

Resting Potential

What is the state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse known as?

All or None

What is the law that states that a neuron either fires completely or does not fire at all called?

Synaptic Vesicles

What are sack-like structures found inside the synaptic knob containing chemicals called?

Neurotransmitters

What are chemicals found in the synaptic vesicles which, when released, have an effect on the next cell called?

Motor

What is the neurotransmitter that causes the receiving cell to fire called?

Interneuron

What is the name of the neuron that mimics or enhances the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the next cell, increasing or decreasing the activity of that cell called?

Spinal Cord

What is a long bundle of neurons that carries messages to and from the body to the brain that is responsible for very fast, lifesaving reflexes called?

Sensory

What is a neuron that carries information from the senses to the central nervous system and is also known as the afferent called?

Peripheral Nervous System

What are all of the nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord but run through the body itself called?

Somatic Nervous System

What is the division of the PNS consisting of nerves that carry information from the senses to the CNS and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body called?

Autonomic Nervous System

What is the division of the PNS that consists of nerves which control all of the involuntary muscles, organs, glands, and sensory pathway nerves.

Sympathetic Division of the Nervous System

What is the part of the ANS that is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal called.

EEG

What is a machine designed to record the brain wave patterns produced by electrical activity of the surface of the brain called?

Cerebellum

What is the part of the lower brain located behind the pons that controls and coordinates involuntary rapid, fire motor movement called?

Thalamus

What is the part of the limbic system located in the center of the brain, that relays sensory information from the lower part of the brain to the proper areas of the cortex and process some sensory information before sending it to its proper area called?

Pons

What is the larger swelling above the medulla that connects the top of the brain to the bottom and that plays a part in sleep, dreaming, left-right body coordination, and arousal called?

Reticular Formation

What is an area of neurons running through the middle of the medulla and the pons, and slightly beyond, that is responsible for selective attention called?

Hippocampus

What is a curved structure located within each temporal lobe, responsible for the formation of long-term memories and the storage of memory of location of objects called?

Amygdala

What is a brain structure located near the hippocampus, responsible for fear responses and memory of fear called?

Cortex

What is the outermost covering of the brain, consisting of densely packed neurons, responsible for higher thought processes and interpretation of sensory input called?

Corpus callosum

What is the thick band of neurons that connect the right and left cerebral hemisphere called?

Occipital lobes

What is the section of the brain located at the rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere containing the visual centers of the brain called?

Parietal lobes

What are the sections of the brain located at the top and back of each cerebral hemisphere, containing the centers for touch, taste, and temperature sensations called?

Temporal lobes

What are the areas of the cortex located just behind the temples, containing the neurons responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech called?

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