the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
Fundamental Attribution Error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
Central Route to Persuasion
occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
Peripheral Route to Persuasion
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness.
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
Normative Social Influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
Informational Social Influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias.
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
the principle that frustration—the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal—creates anger, which can generate aggression.
Mere Exposure Effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
Social Exchange Theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
GRIT (Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction)
a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.
studies how much behavior is caused by genetic predispositions vs learned from environment.
Implicit Racial Associations
even people who deny having racial prejudice may carry negative associations.
the phenomenon of seeing the relationship one expects in a set of data even when no such relationship exists.
when categorizing people into groups, we often stereotype them, biasing our perceptions of their diversity.
animal and human brains have neural systems that, when stimulated, either inhibits or produce aggressive behavior.
hormones, alcohol, and other substances in the blood influence the neural systems that ontrol agression.
the idea that we feel better if we "blow off steam" by venting our emotions.
blowing steam may temporarily calm us, but may also amplify the underlying hostility.
Reward Theory of Attraction
we will like those whose behavior is rewarding to us and that we will continue relationships that offer move rewards than costs.
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind.
a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function—how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth.
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Levels of Analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.
an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.