making a circle on an axis. causes night and day
making a circle around another object. once earth makes one of these, one year has passed. this plus the tilt of the earth causes seasons
marks the beginning of summer.
the day that the summer solstice starts
marks the beginning of winter
the day that the winter solstice starts
marks the beginning of spring
the day that the vernal equinox starts
marks beginning of fall
the day that the autumnal equinox starts
tropic of cancer
line 23.5 degrees north of equator
tropic of capricorn
line 23.5 degrees south of equator
most northerly location of sun's rays. 66.5 degrees north. any place above here recieves 24 hours of daylight on longest day of the year
most southernly location of sun's rays. 66.5 degrees south. any place below here recieves 24 hours of darkness on longest day of the year
imaginary line that seperates north and south hemispheres of earth. 0 degrees latitude
imaginary line that seperates east and west hemispheres of earth. 0 degrees longitude
conditions at a particular time and place
conditions at a place over time
how high something is above sea level. as this increases, temperature decreases because air becomes cooler and thins and loses its ability to hold moisture.
moist air rises and cools on windward side of mountains. condensation occurs and causes precipitation. drier air descends down the mountains and warms.
side of the mountain with rain
side of the mountain with rain shadow
the side of a mountain that doesn't recieve rain
found in tropical climates. morning sunshine heats warm, moist air. clouds form in afternoon and rain falls
mid-latitude storms. cold, dense air pushes warm, light air upwards causing precipitation to form
rainy all year with an average of 80 inches of precipitation per year. hot all year with an average of 80 degrees F. found near equator
tropical wet and dry
rainy season in summer. dry season in winter. temperatures are cooler in dry season and warmer in wet season. less rainfall than in tropical wet. found next to tropical wet climates. africa, south and central america, and parts of asia.
average of 16 inches of precipitation per year. hot summers. mild to cold winters. can produce snow. found in the interior of continents or in a zone around deserts. contains some of the most productive agricultural lands in the world.
less than 10 inches of rain per year. low humidity and high temperatures during the day and cools at night because the dry air cannot hold heat well. warm to hot summers, cool to below freezing winters. can be cool/cold or hot. cool/cold is found in mid-latitudes usually in north hemisphere often in the rain shadow of nearby mountain ranges.
dry and hot summers, cool and rainy winters. found in land around mediterranean sea, west coast of u.s., and parts of australia. it supports a dense population and rich agricultural activity
marine west coast
located close to the ocean. cloudy, foggy, and damp. the winds over the warm ocean moderate the temperatures and keep them relatively constant. found in west coast of the u.s. and canada and most of western europe. constant amount of precipitation throughout the year. industrial regions with this type of climate may have smog (a mixture of smoke and fog)
long periods of summer heat and humidity. found on east coast of continents and are often subject to hurricanes in late summer and autumn. southeastern part of the u.s. and large areas of china. winters are mild to cool depending on latitide. very suitable for raising crops.
rainy spring, some precipitation year round, four distinct seasons. found in mid/upper east coasts continental; interiors of large land areas
taiga cover the lands in this climate zone, especially in canada and russia. huge temperature variations between summer and winter. summers are short and cool, winters are always very cold. temps at freezing or below freezing last five to eight months of the year.
flat, treeless lands forming a ring around the arctic ocean. only located in the northern hemisphere. very little precipitation, less than 15 inches per year. has permafrost. summer only lasts a few weeks with temperatures slightly going above 40 degrees during summer.
snow, ice, and permanently freezing temperatures. so cold that it rarely snows. called polar deserts since they recieve less than 10 inches of precipitation per year. coldest temperature ever recorder at -128.6 F was recorded at one of these regions.
varies greatly. found in rugged mountainn areas. factors that affect it:latitude, elevation, other topography, continental location, whether a slope faces north or south and whether it is exposed to winds carrying moisture
how landforms affect weather and climate
heat and cool quickly; there are wider temperature ranges in interior these
how large bodies of water affect weather and climate
this heats and cools more slowly than adjacent landmasses, so itmoderates temperatures there. it doesnt get super hot or super cold.
how cold and warm ocean currents affect weather and climate
if there is a warm type of these it warms the adjacent landmasses, if there is a cool type of these it cools the adjacent landmasses
the transfer of heat in the atmosphere by upward motion of the air. wind and ocean currents help distribute the sun's heat from on part of the world to another through this. as sunlight heats the atmosphere, the air expands, creating a zone of low air pressure. cooler dense air in a nearby high-pressure zone rushes into the low-pressure area, causing wind.
the opposite of evaporation. when water vapor in the air condenses from a gas back into a liquid form, it leaves the atmosphere, returning to the surface of the Earth
zones of latitude.
low, middle, and high latitudes. low=0-30 degrees north and south. middle=30-60 degrees north and south, high=60-90 degrees north and south. what are these?
winds that blow from west to east
winds that blow from east to west
el nino (with a curly thing above the second "n")
a weather pattern every 2 to 7 years created by the warming of the waters off the west coast of south america, which pushes warm water and heavy rains toward the americas and produces drought conditions in australia and asia
the difference between el nino and la nina
usually, sea-surface readings off South America's west coast range from the 60 degrees to 70 degrees F, while they exceed 80 degrees F in the "warm pool" located in the central and western pacific ocean. this warm pool expands to cover the tropics during el nino but shrinks to the west during la nina
a heavy snowstorm with winds of more than 35 miles per hour and reduced visiblity of less than one-quarter mile
a long period without rain or with very minimal rainfall. results in crop failures and drastically reduced levels in water storage facilities
when water spreads over land not normally covered with water. melting snow or rainwater fills streams or rivers until they reach _____ stage, the point at which the banks can no longer contain water. the water then flows into the surrounding area called a _____plain
when banks can no longer contain water and the water then flows into the surrounding area
another word for hurricane commonly used in asia
storms that form over warm, tropical ocean water. known as tropical cyclones, willy-willies, baguios, and chubascos. air flowing over an ovean with a water temperature of 80 degrees F or higher picks up huge amounts of moisture and heat energy. as these water-laden winds flow into a low-pressure core, they tighten to form an eye. upper air currents blowing from the east steer the __________ in a westerly direction. as the _________ hits land, it pounds the area with howling winds and very heavy rains.
sudden collapse of a large mass of hillside
a powerful funnel-shaped column of spiraling air. form quickly.
states from texas through nebraska that recieve lots of tornadoes between the months of may and october
a sometimes violent momvement of the earth. produced when tectonic plates grind or slip past each other at a fault
a tool used to measure how powerful an earthquake is
the point on the earth's surface that corresponds to the location in the earth where an earthquake begins
high water levels brought by a cyclone that swamps low-lying areas
a giant wave caused by an underwater earthquake or volcanic eruption
a natural event formed when magma, gases, and water from the lower part of the crust or matle collect in underground chambers and eventually erupt and pour out of cracks in the earth's surface
any unwanted, unplanned, damaging fire in the forest. nine out of ten of these are caused by human activities. can be caused by a drought and hot, dry weather
global warming debate
this is the rising of Earth's average surface temperature caused by greenhouse gases
water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, hydroflourocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride are trapped in the Earth's atmosphere causing the atmosphere to become gradually warmer.
an interdependent community of plants and animals.
the ecosystem of a region is referred to as this
the rain forest is heavily concentrated with these types of trees. examples: maple, oak, birch, and cottonwood. a broadleaf tree. trees shed their leaves at least once during the year
one of the two categories that forest regions are divided into. this one shed their leaves at least once during the year
needleaf trees. they are cone bearing. found in huge stands in northern regions of north america, asia, and europe. pine, fir, and cedar trees
one of the two categories that forest regions are divided into. cone bearing. pine, fir, and cedar trees
located in the tropical zone and is covered with a heavy concentration of broadleaf trees.
mostly flat regions dotted with a few trees. other names include: savanna, steppe, prairie, pampas
in the tropical grassland region, the flat, grassy, mostly treeless plains
have no trees and shrubs. are also found in less tropical ecosystems and thus have a larger temperate fluctuation during the year. temperature can vary greatly which has a large impact on growing seasons. less rainfall
steppe and prairie
are used to identify temperate grasslands
in the southern hemisphere, this is what temperate grasslands are referred as
plants that can conserve water and withstand heat survive here
plants that hug the ground, such as mosses and lichen, are best adapted to survive here
permanently frozen soil
a nearly continuous belt of evergreen coniferous forests across the northern hemisphere, in north america and eurasia.
a wind that blows at a certain place at a certain time of year
in the middle latitudes, the winds that move toward the poles that appear to curve to the east.
at about sixty degrees latitude, the prevailing westerlies join with polar __________ to reduce upward motion. these form when the atmosphere over the poles cools. this cool air then sinks and spreads over the surface. as the air flows away from the poles, it is turned to the west by the Coriolis effect.
air movements toward the equator
northeasterly trade winds
winds that move from the northeast to southwest until they reach the equator. found in the tropics
southwesterly trade winds
winds that move from the southwest to northeast until they reach the equator. found in the tropics.
winter's most violent storm and usually happen anytime between october and april. when the cold arctic air from the north combines with the moist air from the gulf of mexico or atlantic ocean off the east coast. forming strong areas of low pressure, the storm then either moves up the east coast into new england or out into the sea.
tries to force winds to shift towards the right or left. can at times cause winds to blow back up the pressure gradient. the rotation of the Earth causes something on free moving objects on the Earth. objects in the Northern Hemisphere are deflected to the right, while objects in the Southern Hemisphere are deflected to the left. this is caused by earth's rotation on its axis
what degree is earth tilted on its axis?
the tendency of land to experience more thermal variation than water, due to the land's lower specific heat capacity. tends to be dryer than oceanic climate as there is less moisture input to the atmosphere from evaporation.
high pressure system
a whirling mass of cool, dry air that generally brings fair weather and light winds.
low pressure system
a whirling mass of warm, moist air that generally brings stormy weather with strong winds
different types of air that brings different types of weather