Chapter 3-The Chemistry of Organic Molecules

Created by gmerv 

Upgrade to
remove ads

The chemistry of organisms

Organic Chemistry

Chemistry of the non-living world

Inorganic Chemistry

Organic Molecules contain

Hydrogen and Oxygen

4 Classes of Organic compounds

1. Lipids 2. Carbs 3. Nucleic Acids 4.Proteins

Which molecules are generally bigger?

Organic Molecules

How many electrons are in carbon's valence shell?

4

Hydrocarbons

chain of carbons linked to hydrogen atoms

Carbon can share electrons with up to as many as __ other atoms

4

What accounts for the shape of an organic molecule?

Carbon skeleton or backbone

a specific combination of bonded atoms that always reacts in the same way, regardless of the particular carbon skeleton.

Functional Group

Organic molecule that have identical molecular formulas, but a different arrangement of atoms

isomers

Monomer of DNA

nucleotide

Monomer of Carbohydrate

polysaccharide

Monomer of Proteins

amino acids

A reaction used to synthesize molecules; results in a water molecule being formed

dehydration reaction

A reaction used to break down molecules; reverse of dehydration

Hydrolosis reaction

Molecules that speed up reactions by bringing reactants together

Enzymes

Largest of biomolecules; result from linking large numbers of the same type of subunit

polymers

Subunits that form polymers

monomers

Universally used as an immediate source of energy for organisms, but also play important structural roles as well.

Carbohydrates

Molecules containing only one sugar molecule

Monosaccharide

Every sugar is bonded to a

Hydrogen and OH

Molecule that is a major complex carb in plant's cell walls

Glucose

Glucose with six carbon atoms

Hexose

Ribose

Pentose sugar found in RNA

Deoxyribose

Pentose sugar found in DNA

Two monosaccharides

Disaccharides

Table sugar we use at home

Sucrose

Polymers of monosaccharides

Polysaccharides

Plants store glucose as _____

starch

Two forms of starch found in plants:

1.Amylose
2.Amylopectin

Animals store glucose as ______

glycogen

Where is glycogen stored?

the liver

What is the structural polysaccharide for animals such as crabs?

chitin

What is the structural polysaccharide for plants?

cellulose

What is the structural polysaccharide for bacteria?

peptidoglycan

Type of organic molecules that include fats and oils

Lipids

Organic molecule that contains glycerol or fatty acids and provides energy and insulation.

Fats

Consist of a long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group at the end

Fatty acids

Which type of fatty acids have no double bond between the carbon atoms?

Saturated fatty acids

Which type of fatty acids do have double bonds between carbon atoms

Unsaturated fatty acids

compound with three OH groups

Glycerol

glycerol molecules that have three fatty acids attached to each glycerol molecule

triglyceride

Constructed like a fat, except that in place of the third fatty acid attached to glycerol, there is a polar phosphate group.

phospholipid

Phospholipids have...

hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails

Phospholipids form a ______ where the hydrophilic heads project outwards, and hydrophobic tails project inwards

bilayer

lipids that have entirely different structures from those of fats

steroids

Cholesterol is a type of

steroid

long-chain fatty acids bond with long-chain alcohols.

waxes

Waxes are what at room temperature?

solid

What are the six major functions of proteins?

1. Metabolism
2.Support
3. Transport
4.Defense
5. Regulation
6. Motion

polymers with amino acid monomers

proteins

type of covalent bond that attaches two amino acids

peptide bond

two or more amino acids bonded together

peptide

a chain of many amino acids joined by peptide bonds.

polypeptide

Organic molecule composed of an amino group and an acid group; covalently bonds to produce peptide molecules

amino acid

What structure accounts for its particular structure of amino acids

primary structure

occurs when the polypeptide coils or folds in a particular way

Secondary Structure

fibrous protein

structural proteins that exist as helices or pleated sheets that hydrogen bond to each other

tertiary structure

he folding that results in the final 3d shape of a polypeptide

denaturation

When a protein loses its natural shape

chaperone proteins

help new proteins fold into their normal shape

nucleotides

-polymers of nucleotides with very specific functions in cells.

the genetic material that stores information regarding its own replication and the order in which amino acids are to be joined to make a protein

DNA

Nucleic acid produced from covalent bonding of nulceotide monomers that contain the sugar ribose; occurs in three forms: messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA

RNA

nonprotein organic molecules that facilitate enzymatic reactions

coenzymes

is a nucleotide that supplies energy for synthetic reactions and fro various other energy requiring processes in cells

ATP

T is always paired with A, and G is always paired with C.

complementary base pairing

ATP is composed of...

adenine and ribose

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set