Ap Euro ALL vocab

675 terms by Dunkelater

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this vocab is from another book, so the page numbers are wrong.... but the information is still correct

The Great Famine of 1315-1322

Poor harvests led to scarcity and starvation. There was a reduced caloric intake because of the suspicion to disease. Working people had les energy, which meant lower productivity, which meant lower output, which meant higher overall prices. (379)

English Statute of Laborers

they attempted to freeze salaries and wages at pre1347 levels. The statute was unable to be enforced therefore it was unsuccessful. (384)

Conciliar movement

The conciliarists believed that church authority rested in the council's representing the people, not the authority of the pope. They believed that reform of the church could best be achieved through council's or assemblies representing the Christian people. (393)

Vernacular literature

The emergence of national consciousness is seen in the rise of literature written in national languages-the vernacular. (406)

Craft guild

they provided a small minority of men and women living in towns and cities with psychological satisfaction of involvement. They set high standards for their merchandise. (398)

The Statute of Kilkenny

the most extensive attempt to prevent intermarriage and protect racial purity is embodied in Ireland's Statute of Kilkenny. It states that "there were to be no marriages between those of immigrant and native stock; that the English inhabitants of Ireland must employ the English language and bear English names; that they must ride in the English way and have English apparel; that no Irishmen were to be granted ecclesiastical benefices or admitted to monasteries in the English parts of Ireland; and that the Irish game of hurling and the maintenance of Irish minstrels were forbidden to English settlers." (405)

The Jacquerie

the frustrations of the French peasantry exploded in a massive uprising called the Jacquerie. Based on a mythical agricultural laborer, Jacques Bonhomme. The crowds blamed the nobility for oppressive taxes and criminal brigandage. (400)

Queen Isabella of England

Queen Isabella and her lover Mortimer deposed and murdered her husband King Edward II, and proclaimed her son Edward III as king. Then Edward took over the throne and fought the Hundred Years' war. (386)

Hundred Years' War

a war between England and France over the French crown. Increased patriotism and led to peasant revolts. (386)

Marsiglio of Padua

the publisher of Defensor Pacis. He argued that the state was the great unifying power in society and that the church was subordinate to the state. He put for the idea that the church had no jurisdiction and should have no property. He was excommunicated because of these ideas. (393)

Battle of Crécy (1346)

the English longbow men scored a great victory over the French knights and crossbowmen. It was a winning battle for the English and gave them a new weapon to use. (387)

Martin V

A Roman cardinal. Real name was Colonna Hook but changed his name to Martin V. he wanted to dissolve the council. (394)

Joan of Arc

a French peasant girl whose vision of work revived the French fortunes and led to victory. She saved the French monarchy, which was the embodiment of France. She was wounded in her breast. The English allies caught her and they burned her for political reasons and suspicion of sorcery. (389-90)

Babylonian Captivity

the period, in which the clement was critically ill with cancer, lacked the will to resist Philip. Left the papal poverty stricken. (392)

Margaret Paston

she and her husband wrote letters to each other which were now used as sources of how couples interacted with one another. She raised eight children and she was a shrewd businessperson. She managed estates. (396)

Lollards

Followers of Wyclif, they were proof that some people believed what Wyclif was saying. (394)

House of Commons

the knights and burgesses were the commons. As they came to be they were recognized with their mutual interests and began to meet apart from the great lords. They realized that they held the country's purse strings. (391)

Edward III

son of Isabella of England. He could only exercise rightful sovereignty over Aquitaine by becoming king of France. He led the country into the Hundred Years' war. (386)

Jan Hus

a young priest aware of ethnic differences between Czechs and Germany. She preached only in Czech (395)

John Wyclif

English scholar and theologian. He wrote the papal claims of temporal power had no foundation in the Scriptures and that the Scriptures should alone be the foundation of Christian belief and practice. He led the Lollards. (394)

Christine de Pisan

The daughter of a professor of astrology at Bologna. She was one of the most versatile and prolific French writers of the later middle ages. She also produced major historical works, which made her famous. (407)

Legal pluralism

a period when newcomers were given separate but equal rights which was legal pluralism. There was an exception to this in Ireland. In the later Middle Ages, legal pluralism disappeared and emphasis on legal homogeneity, language, and blood descent led to ethnic tension. (403-404)

Marriage

usually came at the age of sixteen to eighteen for women and later for men. Because most people were illiterate at that time we have little sources. The marriages were subject to decrease because of the lack of people. (396)

Feudal chivalry

The knights were supposed to show courtesy, graciousness, and generosity to his social equals and certainly to his inferiors. Before the knights did not show such respects to many people. Now because of the aristocratic code of medieval chivalry they have to. (387)

Individual Christian faith

John Wyclif introduced this idea that we didn't need to follow the church to be Christians. We should rather follow the Scriptures, which were the true foundations of Christianity. (393-4)

Leisure time

the people enjoyed cruel sports of bull baiting and bearbaiting. The hangs and mutilations of criminals were exciting and well attended events. Pastime activities were turning into cruel laughter. (399)

Nationalism

the feeling of unity and identity that binds together a people who speak the same language, have a common ancestry, and customs and live in the same area. After many victories, each country experienced a surge of pride in its military strength. English patriotism ran strong after Crécy and Poitiers so did french national confidence after Orleans. (392)

Renaissance

The term Renaissance meaning "rebirth" referred to the period from the 14th century to the 16th century that experienced incredible cultural, economic, and political achievements. (p.415)

oligarchy

An oligarchy was a form of government that possessed constitutions. It was restricted to a class of wealthy merchants who exercised the judicial, executive, and legislative functions of the government. (p.417)

signori

It was a form of government where there was only a one-man ruler. Despots of the signori pretended to observe the law while actually manipulating it to conceal their basic illegality. (p.417)

communes

They were sworn associations of free men seeking complete political and economic independence from local nobles. The merchant guilds that made up the communes maintained city walls, regulated trade, raised taxes, and kept civil order. (p.416)

popolo

Popolo was a new force that disenfranchised and heavily taxed the people bitterly for being excluded from holding power. They used armed force and violence to take over the government. (p.416-417)

reconquista

Reconquista referred to the wars of the northern Christian kings fought in order to control the entire peninsula, some of the religious objectives were to convert and expel the Muslims and Jews. (p.442)

humanism

Humanism was the studying and revival of the classics as a way to define human nature. Renaissance humanists were skeptical of the authority of pagan and classical authors. They emphasized the importance of the individual and their achievements, interests, and talents. (p.420-421)

secularism

It involves a huge concern with the material world instead of with the eternal world of spirit. (p.421-422)

Spanish converses

They were the people who converted from Jews into Christians. Conversos were also known as Marranos, or New Christians. Forty percent of Spanish conversos were either killed or forced to convert into Christianity. (p.444)

individualism

Individualism stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, and other qualities that involved one's capabilities and talents. Individualists believed that a person's abilities should be stretched until fully realized. The quest for glory was a central element in Renaissance individualism. (p.420)

materialism

Materialism is another synonym for secularism. It is a concern for material things instead of the spiritual side of life. (p.420)

hermandades

Hermandades or "brotherhoods" were popular groups in the town. They were given authority to act as both local police forces and as a judicial panel. (p.442)

Machiavellian

It was a synonym used for the politically devious, corrupt, and crafty. (p.429)

Jan Hus

He was a priest who denounced superstitions, the sale of indulgences, and other abuses led by the Church. His remarks were highly orthodox. He was executed under the authority of the Church in 1415. (p.395)

English Royal Council and Court of Start Chamber

The English Royal Council handled any business the king handed them, whether judicial, executive, or legislative. This council also prepared laws for the parliament. They dealt with the real and aristocratic threats to the judicial system. Their methods were very terrifying: accusing people of crime when were not entitled to see evidence against them, council sessions were secret, torture could be applied to extract confessions, and juries were not called to criminal trials. (p.441-442)

conquest of Granada

It was the victorious entry of Ferdinand and Isabella into Granada; it was the culmination of three centuries of Spanish struggle against the Arabs. (p.443)

Habsburg-Valois war

When the French returned to Italy in 1522, a series of conflicts called the Habsburg Valois war emerged. They were often fought in Italy. (p.419)

Brunelleschi's Foundling Hospital in Florence

This hospital was one of the first to display a motif that was widely imitated in the Renaissance: a series of arches supported on a column. (p.425)

Pico della Mirandola

He was the Florentine writer of On the Dignity of Man. In this book he expressed that man possessed great dignity because he was made as Adam in the image of God before Christ's resurrection According to his views, man lays between beats and angels. (p.421)

Desiderius Erasmus

He was a Dutch humanist that believed Christianity is Christ: his life, what he preached and did, not what ologians have written about him. He was an important scholar who has had many publications, The Adages, and The Education of a Christian Prince. There are two fundamental themes that run through his works. One is that education is the means to reform, the key to moral and intellectual improvement. The second is that Christianity is an inner attitude of the heart or spirit, not formalism, special ceremonies, and law. (p.437)

Jan van Eyck

He was an artist who was very much admired in Italy. He was one of the earliest artists to use oil based paints. His paintings have great realism and remarkable attention to human personality. (p.439)

Thomas More

He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society. (p.437)

Donatello

He was a sculptor whose works expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature. Donatello revived the classical figure with its balance and self-awareness. (p.425)

Baldassare Castigiolone

The author of The Courtier. He wrote his treatise to train, discipline, and fashion a young man into a proper gentlemen. This book became the model of a European gentleman. (p.429)

Niccolo Machiavelli

The author of The Prince, it was about political power and how a ruler should maintain and increase their power. He was a humanist that explored the problems of human nature and man's selfishness to advance their own interests. (p.429)

Johan Gutenberg

He was an implementer of the movable types of printing. Johan Gutenberg used it to publish the Bible. Printing made propaganda possible for voicing differences between the Church and the State. (p.428-430)

Lefevre d' Etaples

He was a French scholar and philosopher who published two significant essays on Mary Magdalene. His opinions, which were new at the time, gave rise to a violent controversy. His commentary on the Gospels was condemned, and the imposition of the king temporarily shielded him. He was exiled, and later excommunicated from the Church. (p.437)

Saint John Chrysostom

He was considered the most prominent doctor of the Greek Church and the greatest preacher ever heard in Church. Saint John Chrysostom was a great writer, orator, and theologian of his time. (p.209,349)

Lorenzo Valla

Humanist and author of On Pleasure. He defends the pleasures of the senses as the highest good. He was the father of modern historical criticism. (p.422)

Savonarola

Dominican Friar Girolamo Savonarola attacked the paganism and moral vice of Florence. He became the religious leader of Florence after he drove the Medici family out. (p.419)

Jerome Bosch

He was a Flemish painter whose works display the confusion and anguish of the end of the Middle Ages. Jerome Bosch frequently used religious themes, colorful imagery, and grotesque fantasies in his works of art. (p.439)

Francois Rabelais

He was a French humanist known for discussing the disorders of contemporary religion and secular life. (p.439)

Louis XI of France

He was a tough, cynical, and calculating ruler. Louis XI of France ruthlessly pushed for more power. He preferred to be feared rather than loved in order to be secure. Scholars have credited him with laying the foundation for later French royal absolutism. (p.490)

Henry VII of England

Just like Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England subordinated mortality; he ruthlessly suppressed opposition and rebellion, especially from the nobility. He left England at peace domestically and internationally with the dignity and the role of the royal majesty enhanced. (p.440)

Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain

They invested kingship with a strong sense of royal authority and national purpose. Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain believed that the monarchy was an institution that linked all. Ferdinand and Isabella were determined to strengthen the royal authority of Spain, and they did so by forming a royal council that handled the business affairs of the government. (p.440)

Charles VII of France

He began France's long recovery after the Hundred Years' War. He made important contributions to France by reorganizing the royal council, strengthening royal finances through issuing taxes; he also remodeled the army, and took France out of an economic depression. (p.440)

Cesare Borgia

Cesare Borgia was the son of Pope Alexander VI. This key "new monarch" reasserted the church authority in the papal lands of Italy. Cesare began uniting the peninsula by conquering and invading the principalities making up the papal states. (p.417)

The German Peasants' Revolt of 1525

It was the reaction by the peasant class after the introduction of Martin Luther and his radical ideas to European society. (p.459-461)

pluralism

Pluralism was when churchmen held several offices (benefices) at the same time, just collecting revenues but not visiting their parishes. (p.476)

Brethren of Common Life

They were pious laypeople who carried out the Gospel way of life. These people fed the hungry, clothed the poor, and visited the sick. The Brethren also taught at local schools to prepare children for priesthood and the monastic way of life. (p.453)

John Knox

He was a man who dominated the reform movement in Scotland. He was a passionate preacher who set to work reforming the Church of Scotland. He persuaded parliament to banish church authority; he then established the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. (p.473)

Pope Paul III

He promised to summon a council for reform if he was elected pope after the death of Pope Clement VII. Roman aristocrat, humanist, and astrologer, Pope Paul III formed the Council of Trent during the Catholic reformations. (p.476)

Ulrich Zwingli

The Swiss humanist and admirer of Erasmus; Ulrich Zwingli introduced reformation in Switzerland. Zwingli was also convinced that Christian life rested on the scriptures; which were the pure words of God and the sole basis of religious truth. (p.456-457)

Archbishop Cranmer

Archbishop Cranmer simplified the liturgy for England. He prepared the first Book of Common Prayer with other protestant theologians in England. (p.473)

John Tetzel

Archbishop Albert hired John Tetzel to sell indulgences to the people. Tetzel even made up an advertising scheme for the sale of indulgences. He drew up a chart with the prices for the forgiveness of sins. (p.456)

Martin Luther

Martin Luther was a German friar who launched the Protestant reforms during the sixteenth century. Luther was famous for his Ninety-five theses and for opposing church authority regarding the sale of indulgences. (p.453-456)

transubstantiation/consubstantiation

Catholics hold the dogma of transubstantiation by consecrating the words of the priest during the Mass, the bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ. In opposition, Luther defined consubstantiation, the belied that after the consecration the bread and wine undergo a spiritual change where Christ is really present but the bread and wine aren't transformed. (p.459)

Henry VIII

King Henry VIII wanted to "reduce the realm to the knowledge of God and obedience to us." He was the king of England who broke away from the papacy and created the Church of England to gain a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon after he fell in love with Anne Boleyn. He used parliament to legalize the Reformation in England. (p.470-471)

Charles V

He was the last medieval emperor part of the Hapsburg dynasty. Charles V inherited much of Europe and was committed to the idea of religious and political unity within his empire. He was a vigorous defender of Catholicism. (p.463)

Mary Tudor

She was the devout Catholic daughter of Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Henry VIII. She served as queen after the brief reign of Edward VI. She turned England back to Catholicism, by persecuting and executing hundreds of English Protestants. (p.473)

Pope Alexander VI

He was also known as the infamous Rodrigo Borgia. This pope reached new heights of impropriety; having concubines, sexual affairs, extravagant papal parties, supposed poisonings, and having the prevalence of intrigue. The name "Borgia" became a synonym for moral corruption. (p.452)

Council of Trent

The Council of Trent was called not only to reform the church but also to reconcile with protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists alike were invited to attend, but their insistence that the scriptures were the sole basis of Christianity made reconciliation impossible. (p.476)

Counter-Reformation

This was a movement that began as a reaction to the rise and spread of Protestantism. It involved Catholic efforts to convince and coerce heretics to return to the Church before they influenced the entire community of Catholic believers. (p.478)

Holy Office

It was the sacred congregation of the papal court that deals with protection of faith and morals. The Holy Office was a powerful instrument of the Counter Reformation. (p.480-481)

Elizabethan Settlement

The Elizabethan Settlement was the parliamentary legislation of laws during the time when Queen Elizabeth, daughter of King Henry, reigned. These laws required outward conformity to the Church of England and uniformity of all ceremonies. (p.473)

Act of Restraint of Appeals

This act declared the king to be the supreme sovereign in England, and forbade judicial appeals to the papacy. King Henry VIII used Parliament to legalize the Reformation in England. (p.471)

benefices

Many clerics held offices called benefices to perform the spiritual responsibilities they were entitled to do. Instead, they collected revenues and hired a poor priest to do the spiritual duties of the local church. (p.452)

Peace of Augsburg

Charles V accepted this status quo after the long dynastic struggle called the Habsburg-Valois War. This document officially recognized Lutheranism. Each prince of Germany was permitted to determine his territory's religion. (p.466)

Ninety-five Theses

It was Luther's response about the sale of indulgences. In his Ninety-five theses he argued that salvation could only be achieved through good faith alone. Luther was troubled by the ignorant people who believed that once they purchased an indulgence their sin would be forgiven. His argument was that indulgences undermined the seriousness of penance. (p.456)

preacherships

Preacherships were a group of men who delivered hundreds of sermons. They also encouraged the Protestant form of worship in which the sermon, not the Eucharist, was the central point of the service. (p.459)

The Imitation of Christ

This book was the inspiration of the Brethren of Common Life. The author, Thomas a Kempis, urged Christians to take Christ as their model and seek perfection in a simple way of life. (p.453)

Appeal to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation

Unless the princes destroyed papal power in Germany, Luther argued in this book that reform was impossible. He urged princes to confiscate ecclesiastical wealth and to abolish indulgences, dispensations, pardons, and clerical celibacy. He told them it was their public duty to bring about a moral reform to the church. (p.465)

The Institutes of the Christian Religion

This book was the cornerstone of Calvin's theology. Embodying the ideas of John Calvin, it talked about his belief in the absolute sovereignty and omnipotence of God and the total weakness of humanity. (p.467)

Roman Catholicism

The official state of religion in Europe before Protestant reformations came into place. Roman Catholics believed that Jesus rose from the dead after being crucified; they believed that Jesus Christ founded the church to carry the salvation that he brought for his people. Catholics also believed that the church had faithfully preserved the teachings of Christ. (p.457)

Lutheranism

The doctrine that is based off of the ideals and beliefs set forth by Martin Luther; Lutheranism went against the papal authority of the Church. Lutherans believed justification by faith alone. (p. 457-459)

Calvinism

John Calvin, the founder of Calvinism, worked to establish a society ruled by God through magistrates and reformed ministers. The reformed church of Calvin, with an organized machinery of government and social and economic theology, made Calvinism the most dynamic force in 16th and 17th century Protestantism. (p.467)

Anabaptist

They were a group of people who believed that only adults could made a free choice about religious faith, baptism, and entry into the Christian community. Anabaptists never forced their values on others; they believed that the Church was a gathering of people united by faith, repentance, obedience, and discipline. Anabaptists condemned government involvement in religion, which led to the idea of the separation of church and state. (p.469)

Church of England

The state of church established by King Henry VIII after he broke away from the Catholic church when he was not allowed a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon. (p.471-473)

Presbyterian Church of Scotland

Founded by John Knox, the Church of Scotland was strictly Calvinist in doctrine. They adopted a simple dignified service of worship, and laid great emphasis on teaching. The Presbyterian Church of Scotland was a national, state, and church where many of its members maintained close relations with English Puritans. (p.473)

French politiques

A small group of moderates of Protestants and Catholics who believed in the restoration of a strong monarchy that could reverse the trend of the collapse. They ultimately saved France from political disintegration. (p.491)

mercantilism

Mercantilism is the collection of government policies for the regulation of economic activities especially commercial, by and for the state. (p.539)

inflation

Inflation is the persistent increase in the level of consumer prices caused by the availability of currency and credit beyond the proportion available goods and services. (p.511-512)

sexism

Sexism is to discriminate people by their gender. It is assumed when a person's abilities and social functions are determined by his or her sex. (p.513)

racism

Racism is to discriminate people by their color, ethnicity, race, or religion. It is the belief in the superiority of a particular race. (p.516-517)

skepticism

Skepticism is the school of thought founded on the doubt and total certainty or definitive knowledge is ever attainable. The skeptic is cautious and critical who suspend judgment. (p.516)

misogyny

Misogyny is the pure hatred of women. Witch hunting reflects a widespread misogyny and a misunderstanding of women. (p.516)

baroque

"Odd-shaped and imperfect." The baroque was commonly used by the late 18th century as an expression of scorn; it was considered as overblown and an unbalanced style of art in the Europe. (p.521-522)

politiques

The politiques were a small group of moderates of both faiths: Catholicism and Protestantism. They believed that only restoration of a strong monarchy can reverse the trend of France's potential collapse; they ultimately saved France. (p.491)

Elizabeth I of England

She supported the northern protestant cause as a safeguard against Spain attacking England. She had her rival, Mary, Queen of Scots, beheaded. Elizabeth I of England succeeded Mary and reestablished Protestantism in England. (p.471-73, 494-96, 521)

Huguenots

This is what French Calvinists were called. Hundreds of them were tortured had their tongues cut out, throats slit, were maimed of murdered by the Catholics during the religious civil war in France. But before that that Calvinist launched a major attacks on Catholic churches, religious statues were knocked down, stained glass windows were smashed and sacred vestments, vessels and Eucharist elements were defiled. (p.490)

Phillip II of Spain

Phillip II of Spain sought pleasure in his youth but when he got older he sought a life of prayer. He didn't believe in religious toleration. Phillip supported Mary Queen of Scotland's plot to Kill Elizabeth so he planned an invasion of England. He wanted to keep England in the Catholic fold. The destruction of the Spanish Armada of 1588 did not mean the end of the war, but it did prevent him from forcibly unifying all of Western Europe. (p.512)

Prince Henry the Navigator

The Portuguese Prince Henry a.k.a. "the Navigator" established the study of geography and navigation for the expeditions he sent down the western coast of Africa. Prince Henry the Navigator paved Portugal the way for domination in the pursuit of European world expansion. (p.496)

Michel de Montaigne

Michel de Montaigne is the finest represent of the early modern skepticism. Montaigne developed a new literary genre: the essay. He rejected the claim that one culture may be superior to others and by doing this he inaugurated a new era of doubt. (p.519)

Christopher Columbus

Columbus was a deeply religious man who was a link between the expulsion of the Moors and Christian missionary work. His principal goal was to find a direct sea route to Asia. What he did find though was not Asia, but North America. He paved a way for the Spanish Imperial Administration. Columbus was a Spanish explorer who made four voyages to the Americas. He was supposed to sail to India and China, but a wind blew him to the Caribbean. (p.508-510)

Bartholomew Diaz

In 1418 Portuguese explorer Bartholomew Diaz rounded the Cape of Good Hope at the tip of Africa. King Manuel promptly dispatched 13 ships under the command of Pedro Alvares Cabral, assisted by Diaz, to set up trading posts in India. (p.503)

Hernando Cortez

A brash and determined Spanish adventurer, Hernando Cortez crossed the Hispaniola to mainland Mexico with six hundred men, seventeen horses and ten canons. Within three years, Cortez had taken captive the Aztec emperor Montezuma, conquered the rich Aztec empire and found Mexico City as the capital of New Spain. (p.508-510)

Habsburg

Valois wars- The Habsburg-Valois wars was a series of battles between France and Spain over the control of Italy. Spain won after France was exhausted from the struggle. Spain ruled over Sicily, Naples, Venice, Papal States, Milan, and Tuscany and their victory. These wars advanced the cause of Protestantism and promoted political fragmentation of the German empire. (p.419, 488)

quinto

The Spanish monarchy acted on the mercantilism principle that the colonies existed for financial benefit. The crown claimed the quinto, gold and silver, as being the most important industry in the Spanish colonies. (p.512)

audiencia

Within each territory the viceroy, or imperial governor, exercised broad military and civil authority as the direct representative of the sovereign in Madrid. The viceroy presided over the audiencia, a board of twelve to fifteen judges, which served as his advisory council and the highest judicial body. (p.512)

corregidores

The Portuguese governed their colony of Brazil in a similar manner. After the union of the crowns of Portugal and Spain in 1580, Spanish administrative forms were introduced. Local officials were called corregidores; they held judicial and military powers. (p.512)

Thirty Years' War

Protestant Bohemian revolt over religious freedom led to war in Germany. Historians traditionally divide the war into four phases. The Bohemian phase (1618-1625) was characterized by a civil war in Bohemia between the Catholic League and Protestant Union. The Bohemian fought for religious liberty and independence from Habsburg rule. Ferdinand II wiped out Protestants in Bohemia. The Danish phase (1625-1629) led to further Catholic victory. The Swedish phase (1630-1635) of the war ended the Habsburg plan to unite Germany. The French phase (1635-1648) destroyed Germany and an independent Netherlands. The Peace of Westphalia" recognized the independent authority of the German princes. The treaties allowed France to intervene at will in German affairs. The war was economically disastrous for Germany. The war led to agricultural depression in Germany, which in turn encouraged a return to serfdom for many peasants. The Lutherans gained more territories than they were supposed to have and so a war between the Protestant alliance and a Catholic League resulted. (p.498)

defeat of the Spanish Armada

The defeat of the Spanish Armada was decisive, however, in the sense that presented Phillip II from reemploying on Western Europe by force. In the seventeenth century Spain, the memory of the defeat of the Spanish Armada contributed to the spirit of defeatism. The battles were between England and Spain. The English were the ones who defeated the Spanish Armada. This defeat stopped Phillip II from reimposing unity on Western Europe by force. (p.496-498)

Concordat of Bologna

This was the treaty with the papacy and France, where Francis I agreed to recognize the supremacy of the papacy over a universal council. In return, the French crown gained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots. This treaty was signed as a way for Francis I to make money. This allowed the French to pick their own priests for the churches, as a last resort to save money. (p.489)

Peace of Westphalia

This settlement was achieved in 1648, it signaled the end of the medieval ideal. Late sixteenth century conflicts fundamentally tested the medieval ideal of a unified Christian society governed by one political ruler and are under one church. The Protestant Reformation killed this ideal. The Peace of Westphalia ended religious wars but also the idea of a unified Christian society. It was a treaty signed at Munster and Osnabruck. It marked a turning point in European political, religious, and social history. (p.488, 499)

Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre

A savage Catholic attack on Calvinist in Paris on August 24, 1572 (Saint Bartholomew's Day), followed the usual pattern. The occasion was a religious ceremony a wedding, which was supposed to help reconcile the Catholics and the Huguenots. Gaspard de Coligny was the leader of the Huguenots and was present at the wedding, but the night before, Catholic aristocratic Henry of Guise had Coligny attacked, rioting and slaughter followed. The Huguenot gentry in Paris were massacred. The Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre of the Calvinists led to the War of the Three Henrys. (p.490)

War of the Three Henrys

This was a civil conflict among factions led by the Catholic Henry of Guise, the Protestant Henry of Navarre, and King Henry III who succeeded Charles IX. The War of the Three Henrys was a damaging conflict for secular power. Henry of Guise and King Henry were killed. Henry of Navarre became King Henry VI. Although he was Protestant, he had converted to Catholicism once he became king. His Edict of Nantes in 1598 allowed the Protestants to worship. (p.490-491)

Edict of Nantes

This was published by King Henry VI (former Henry of Navarre) in 1598. It granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship in 150 fortified towns in France. The reign of Henry VI and the Edict of Nantes prepared the way for French absolutism in the seventeenth century by helping restore internal peace in France. It was a liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship in one hundred and fifty fortified towns. (p.491)

Sovereignty

A state may be termed sovereign when it possesses a monopoly over the instruments of justice and the use of force within clearly defined boundaries. In a sovereign state, no system of courts, such as ecclesiastical tribunals, competes with state courts in the dispensation of justice; and private armies, such as those of feudal lords, present no threat to royal authority because the state's army is stronger. Sovereignty has been evolving during the late sixteenth century and they are privileged groups. (531)

Totalitarianism

Thus the absolute state was not the same as a totalitarian state. Totalitarianism is a 20th century phenomenon; it seeks to direct all facets of a state's culture. Totalitarian rule is a total regulation. (532)

Absolutism

In the absolutist state, sovereignty is embodies in the person of the ruler, Absolute kings claimed to rule by divine right, meaning they were responsible to God alone. Absolutism was coined only in 1830, two centuries after the developments it attempts to classify occurred. It is without limitations; unconditional power vested in an autocrat; despotism. (531-532)

Mercantilism

Is a collection of governmental policies for the regulation of economic activities, especially commercial activities, by and for the state. In 17th and 18th century economic theory, a nation's international power was thought to be based on its wealth, specifically its gold supply. Because mercantilist theory held, resources were limited, state intervention was need to secure the largest part of a limited resource. (539)

Republicanism

In a republic, the people or their elected representatives hold supreme power. A government controlled by wealthy merchants and financiers. Though rich, their values were not aristocratic but strongly middle-class, emphasizing thrift, hard work, and simplicity in living. The Dutch republic was not a strong federation but a confederation a weak union of strong provinces. (555)

Constitutionalism

Constitutionalism is the limitation of government by law. Constitutionalism also implies a balance between the authority and power of the government, on one hand, and the rights and liberties of the subjects, on the other. (549)

Cabinet government

In a cabinet system, which developed in the eighteenth century, leading ministers, who form the government, holds both legislature and executive power. In a cabinet system, the leading ministers, who must have seats in the Parliament and the support of the majority of the House of Commons, formulate common policy and conduct business of the country. (554)

French classicism

Scholars criticize the age of Louis XIV as "French Classicism." By this, they meant that the artists and writers of late seventeenth century, deliberately imitated the subject matter and style of classical antiquity, that their work resembled that of the Renaissance Italy and that French art possessed the classical qualities of discipline, balance, and restraint. Classicism was the official style of Louis's court. (541)

Quixotic

When Miguel de Cervantes produced one of the great masterpieces of world literature, Don Quixotic, the Spanish writer used quixotic. Quixotic means idealistic but impractical; the term characterizes seventeenth century Spain. (548)

Commonwealth

A commonwealth, or republic form of government, was proclaimed when Charles I was beheaded in 1649. Theoretically, legislative power rested in the surviving members of the parliament and executive power was lodged in a council state. (552)

The French intendants

France was divided into thirty-two generalities (districts), in each of which after 1634, a royal intendant held a commission to perform specific tasks, often financial but also judicial and policing. Intendants transmitted information from local communities to Paris and delivered royal orders from the capital to their generalities. Usually recruited from the newer judicial nobility, the noblesse de robe, intendants were appointed directly by the monarch, to whom they were solely responsible. They could not be natives of the districts where they held authority; thus, they had no vested interest in their localities. The intendants recruited men for the army, supervised the collection of taxes, presided over the administration of local law checked up on the local nobility, and regulated economic activities-commerce, trade, the guilds, marketplaces-in their districts. (534)

Sully

Sully proved to be an effective administrator. He combined the indirect taxes on salt, sales, and transit and leased their collection to financiers. Sully subsidized the Company for Trade with the Indies. He started a countrywide highway system and even dreamed of an international organization for the maintenance of peace. In only twelve years, Henry IV and Sully resorted public order in France and laid the foundations for economic prosperity. (533-534)

Paulette

In compensation for the lost revenues in 1602-1604, Henry IV introduced the Paulette, an annual fee paid by royal officials to guarantee hereditary in their offices. (533)

Fronde

When Louis XIV continued Richelieu's centralizing policies, attempts to increase royal revenues led to the civil wars of 1648-1653 known as the "Fronde." The word Fronde means "slingshot" or "catapult", and a frondeur was originally a street urchin who threw mud at passing carriages of the rich. However, the Fronde originated in the provinces, not Paris and the term frondeur came to known as anyone who opposed the policies of the government. (536)

Cardinal Richelieu

In 1624 Marie de' Medici secured the appointment of Armand Jean du Plessis-Cardinal Richelieu to the council of ministers. It was a remarkable appointment. The next year, Richelieu became president of the council, and after 1628, he was first minister of the French crown. He used his strong influence over King Louis XIII to exalt the French monarchy as the embodiment of the French state. One of the greatest servants of that state, Richelieu set in place the cornerstone of French absolutism, and his work served as the basis for France's cultural hegemony of Europe in the later seventeenth century. His policy was the total subordination of all groups and institutions to the French monarchy. The French nobility, with its selfish and independent interests, had long constituted the foremost threat tot eh centralizing goals of the Crown and to a strong national state. Therefore, Richelieu sought to curb the power of the nobility. In 1624, he succeeded in reshuffling the royal council, eliminating such potential power brokers as the prince of Condoé. Thereafter Richelieu dominated the council in an ujnprecedente4d way. He leveled castles, long the symbol of feudal independence, and crushed aristocratic conspiracies with quick executions. For example, when the duck of Montomorency, the first peer of France and godson of Henry IV, became involved in a revolt, he was summarily beheaded. The constructive genius of Cardinal Richelieu is best reflected in the administrative system he established. (534)

Richelieu's généralités

France was divided into thirty-two généralitiés (districts), in each of which after 1634, a royal intendant held a commission to perform specific tasks, often financial but also judicial and policing. Intendants transmitted information from local communities to Paris and delivered royal orders from the capital to their generalities. (534)

The French Academy

Richelieu's efforts at centralization extended even to literature. In 1635, he gave official recognition to a group of philologists who were interested in grammar and rhetoric. Thus was born the French Academy. With Richelieu's encouragement, the French Academy began the preparation of a dictionary to standardize the French language; it was completed in 1694. The French Academy survives as prestigious society, and its membership now includes people outside the field of literature. It was an academy to teach epilogists who were interested in grammar and rhetoric. (535)

Louis XIV of France

He ruled through absolutism and believed in divine right. He was the "Sun King" because he reigned from 1643-1715, the longest in European history. He restored the Palace of Versailles. He revoked the Edict of Nantes because he did like division within his realm. He carried out the expansionist policy to the full extent. He was at war 33 of his 54-year personal rule. French monarchy reached the peak of absolutist development under his rule. (537-543)

Versailles

Louis XIV installed his royal court at Versailles, a small town ten miles from Paris. He required all the great nobility of France at then peril social, political, and sometimes economic disaster to come and live at Versailles for at least part of the year. In the seventeenth century, it became a model of rational order, the center of France and the perfect symbol of the king's power. The king used the court ceremonials to undermine the power of the great nobility. By excluding the highest nobles from hic council, he weakened their ancient right to advise the king and to participate in government. The court at Versailles was a clever way to undermine the power of the aristocracy by separating power from status. (538)

Molière

When Jean Baptist Po Quelin 91622-1673), the son of a prosperous tapestry maker, refused to join his fathers business and enter theater he too the name "Moliere". As a playwright, stage manager, director, and an actor, Moliere produced comedies that exposed the hypocrisies and follies of society through brilliant caricature. In structure, Moliere's plays followed classical models but they were based on careful social observation. (542-543)

Racine

Jean Racine (1639-1899) analyzed the power of love. Racine based his tragic dramas on Greek and Roman legends, and his persistent theme was the conflict of good and evil. For simplicity of language, symmetrical structure, and calm restraint, the play of Racine represents the finest examples of French classicism. (543)

Poussin

Nicolaus Poussin is generally considered the finest examples of French classicist painting. He spent all but eighteen months of his creative life in Rome because he found the atmosphere in Paris uncongenial. Deeply attached to classical antiquity, he believed that the highest aim of painting was to represent noble actions in a logical and orderly, but not a realistic, way. (541)

Count-Duke of Olivares

Phillip IV of Spain left his federal kingdoms to Gaspard de Guzman, Count-Duke of Olivares. Olivares was an able minister. He did not lack energy and ideas; he devised new sources of revenue. However, he clung to the grandiose belief that the solution to Spain's difficulties rested in imperial tradition. Unfortunately, the imperial demanded the revival of the war with the Dutch at the expiration of a twelve-year truce in 1622 and a long war with France over Mantua (1628-1659). Spain thus became embroiled in the Thirty Years' War. These conflicts, on top of an empty treasury, brought disaster. (547-548)

Dutch Estates General

Holland, which had the largest army and the most wealth, dominated the republic and the State General. Significantly, the Estates assembled at Holland's capital, The Hague. The investors received a percentage of the profits proportional to the amount of money they had put in. Jealously guarded local independence and resisted efforts at centralization. (555)

Dutch East India Company

In 1602, a group of regents of Holland formed the Dutch East India Company, a joint-stock company. It traded extensively with Latin America and Africa. Within half a century, the Dutch East India Company had cut heavily into the Portuguese trading in East India. The Dutch seized the Cape of Good Hope, Ceylon, and Malacca and established trading posts in each place. Trade and commerce brought the Dutch prodigious wealth. In the seventeenth century, the Dutch enjoyed the highest standard of living in Europe, perhaps in the world. Amsterdam and Rotterdam built massive granaries where the surplus of one year can be stored against possible shortages in the next. (557)

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