rebirth of interest in the heritage of classics (Rome) Began in Italy and occured between the 14th and 16th century
Northern Italian cities with an association of free men looking for complete political and economic independence from nobles. The merchants that created the communes would regulate trade, taxes, build and maintain city walls and keep civil order.
one man rulers or despots. The despot usually pretended to be observing the law when really he was manipulating it to hide their illegal doings.
He predicted the French invasion. He was a Friar that disliked paganism, moral vice of the city, and undemocratic govt of the Medici and the corruption of the pope. He condemned sodomy (gays). He was the religious leader of Florence and helped bring down the Medici family. Eventually he was excommunicated and executed.
More materialistic ideals over spiritual ideals. People became less religious and non-sectarian. The court system was created. The people broke away from the church
when a group of people rules, usually is made up of a family or group of nobles
1521-1555) This was a series of 5 wars between Charles V king of Germany (Habsburg) vs. (Valios) kings of France. France tried to keep Germany divided. This advanced the cause of Protestantism. Finally in 1555 Charles V agrees to the Peace of Augsburg which establishes the permanent religious division of Germany into Lutheran and Catholic churches.
Giovanni Pic Della Mirandola
He was one of the leading scholars studying the works of Plato in Greek in the Florentine or Platonic Academy. He wrote, " ON the Dignity of Man" and stressed that a man possesses great dignity because he was made as Adam in the image of God. His book was writen in a Christian perspective.
wrote The Book of the Courtier which specified necessary qualities a gentleman must have to lead a non-contemplative and active life in the Middle ages. Sports, conversation, dance, music, weaponry, Latin, Greek, and a personal demeanor were the outline for a gentleman. This book greatly influenced Western ideas about correct behavior.
He wrote The Decameron (collection of short italian stories) which describes the worlds society at that time and how people acted. This was ment to amuse the reader. Also shows the sarcasm of the Humanists.
In Mainz, Germany, movable type printing was created in 1450s by Johann Gutenberg. This allowed the dissenters to spread their ideas throughout Europe and making the Bible available to the common people. This encouraged literacy, the writing of books on secular topics and also propaganda
he was the founder of perspective in painting
Perspective in painting
The linear representation of distance and space on a flat surface.
painted themes from classical mythology such as Birth of Venus. Also painted Primavera or Spring.
Some say that "Venus" is an allegory for Virgin Mary
Even though she was a girl, Artemisia achieved international renown for her paintings.
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
1438 Charles VII created the first permanent royal army and published this document giving the french major control over the appointment of bishops, and depriving the pope of the french ecclesiastical revenues.
Wars of the Roses
(1455-1471)adherents of the ducal houses of York and Lancaster waged civil war. It was called war of the roses because the symbol of the Yorkists were white roses and the Landcastrians had red ones. This hurt trade,agriculture,domestic industries and the monarchy sank.
stressed personality, uniqueness, genius and full development of one's capabilities and talent. Gave people a thirst for fame and desire for success
Lorenza de Valla
He wrote On the False Donation of Constantine that proves that an anonymous eighth-century document supposedly giving the papacy jurisdiction over vast territories of Western Europe was a forgery. He also wrote On Pleasures, which defends the pleasures of the senses as the highest good.
Dutch, wrote Praise of Folly , and was called the Prince of Christian Humanism. He wanted to see reforms in the Catholic Church. He also believed that Christianity was an inner attitude or spirit, not formal law. That the Bible didnt make up the entirety of Christianity. Erasmus had huge impacts on the Protestant Reformation.
the period of history between classical antiquity and the Italian Renaissance
a group of people where were heavily taxed and excluded from the government. They used armed forces and violence to take over the city governments. They then established republican governments in many cities. They treated the people under them as they were treated ( heavily taxed, excluded from the government...). Their rule was temporary and signori and oligarchy governments began to pop up all over Italy.
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
In 1519 he succeded his grandfather Maximilian as Holy Roman emperor. He was part of the Habsburg-Valois Wars. The Italian city states, under Charles, did not have a centralized government to coordinate big issues. He also summoned the Diet of Worms
a painter and michelangelos rival they told him they wanted him to paint the sistine chapel but then gave the job to michelangelo. Painted the school of Athens which showed the extent of humanism.
humanism should revolve around Christianity, using the classics to understand God and Christianity, mostly in the North during the High Renaissance.
1456; distributed across Europe as one of the first block-books
he sculpted a pair of bronze doors for the baptistry in Florence dedicated to Saint John. He developed techniques of three dimensional sculpture.
1386-1466) a Renaissance sculptor had the greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed the variety of human nature.
Jan van Eyck
(Dutch/ Flemish) known for his excellent and often symbolic pictures; painted oil pictures in meticulous detail; Ghent Altarpiece and Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride were two famous examples of his work
ciompi revolts of 1378
shook political establishments
professional fighting men of Renaissance Italy - mercenaries fighting for city-states. Out for individual - changed sides for right price. ex. of individualism. Machiavelli warned against dependency on these for military defence. Advocated a militia instead.
were a great banking family in Florence in the 15th century. Ruled government of Florence from behind the scenes.
Studies the Latin classics to learn what they reveal about human nature. Emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities.
(3 November 1500 - 13 February 1571) was an Italian goldsmith,sculptor, painter, soldier and musician, who also wrote a famous autobiography. He was one of the most important artists of Mannerism. The fact that he wrote an autobiography showed the value of individualism that people would think to tell thier own stories.Autobiography is an excellent record of life in Renaissance Italy and reveals why he is the prime example of "virtu".
(1469-1527) Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means." The Prince is the first political science work on how governments rule without moral judgment. Still read today, was written when Italy was broken, because so many people had invaded, economy was in shambles. He told people how to rule so that they could give Italy its original splendor. "A prince should provide the cunning of the fox with the ferocity of a lion." Book was based of of Cesar Borgia, ruthless ruler.
Sir Thomas More
1478-1535) Englishman, lawyer, politician, Chancellor for Henry VIII. Wrote Utopia which presented a revolutionary view of society. Executed for not compromising his religious beliefs.Utopia creates a "perfect" idealist society in which social equality is attained, although the word utopia literally means "nowhere". He believed that people are selfish because all of their material possesions.
In the history of art, arts patronage refers to the support that kings or popes have provided to musicians, painters, and sculptors.Rulers, nobles and very wealthy people used patronage of the arts to endorse their political ambitions, social positions, and prestige. That is, patrons operated as sponsors. Some patrons, such as the Medici of Florence, used artistic patronage to "cleanse" wealth that was perceived as ill-gotten through usury. Art patronage was especially important in the creation of religious art. The Roman Catholic Church and later Protestant groups sponsored art and architecture, as seen in churches,cathedrals, painting, sculpture and handicrafts.
1475-1564) Worked in Rome. Painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Sculpted the statue of David. All of the poison dyes from the paints of the Sistine Chapel blinded him.
(It.) produced portraits, religious and mythological scenes, developing techniques of painting in oil without doing elaborate drawings first, which speeded up the process and pleased patrons eager to display their acquisition
Court of the Star Chamber
an English court of law that sat at the royal Palace of Westminster until 1641 and was created by Henry VII. It was made up of Privy Counsellors, as well as common-law judges and supplemented the activities of the common-law and equity courts in both civil and criminal matters. The court was set up to ensure the fair enforcement of laws against prominent people, those so powerful that ordinary courts could never convict them of their crimes. Court sessions were held in secret, with no indictments, no right of appeal, no juries, and no witnesses. Evidence was presented in writing. Over time it evolved into a political weapon, a symbol of the misuse and abuse of power by the English monarchy and courts.
An artist who led the way into realism; his treatment of the human body and face replaced the formal stiffness and artificiality that had long characterized the representation of the human body
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
Artistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Used elongated proportions, twisted poese and compression of space.
this is a salt tax levied in France
justices of the peace
English local officials in the shires appointed by the crown and given wide authority in local government.