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lobes

frontal lobe, motor cortex, parietal love, sensory cortex, occipital love, and temporal lobe

brain stem

medulla, pons, and reticular formation

limbic system

hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus

sensory neurons

caries messages from tissues and sensory organs into the brain and spinal chord for processing

motor neurons

carries information from brain and spinal chord to muscles and glands

pituitary gland

releases hormones that influence growth

limbic system

two halves of the brain linked to emotions, memories, and drive

amygdala

emotions: influences aggression and fear

hypothalamus

hunger, thirsty, and body temperature; pituitary gland; circadian rhythms (sleep wake cycle)

medulla

controls heart beat and breathing

thalamus

brain's sensory switchboard, pain perception

reticular formation

affects arousal (wake/asleep)

cerebellum

(little brain) helps movement, balance, and posture

hippocampus

memory

corpus callosum

axon fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres

cerebral cortex

ultimate control and information processing center

brainstem

basic life functions: breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure +arousal

frontal lobe

plants and judgement

motor cortex

muscle movement

parietal lobe

senses, touch and body position

sensory cortex

registers and processes touch

occipital lobe

seeing

temporal lobe

hearing

brocas

performing words, motor function of speaking

wernicke's area

understanding words, understanding languages

neuron

nerve cell, basic building block of the nervous system

dendrite

extensions of a neuron that receives messages and conduct impulses to the soma

axon

extensions of a neuron ending in branch terminal fibers, messages pass to the other neurons, muscles, or glands

interneurons

neurons within the brain and spinal chord that deal with sensory inputs and motor outputs

myelin sheath

layer of fatty tissue that covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses

action potential

neural impuse, when stimulated a neuron fires an electrical charge that travels down an axon

threshold

level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

synapse

junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

neurotransmitters

chemical messengers released when action potential reaches knoblike terminal at axons end

reuptake

sending neuron reabsorbs the excess neurotransmitters in the synaptic gap

nervous system

electrochemical communication network, all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system

central nervous system

brain and spinal cord

peripheral nervous system

sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body

nerves

bundled axons that connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

somatic nervous system

division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles

autonomic system

part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs; operates on its own

sympathetic nervous system

division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body

parasympathetic nervous system

division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving it's energy

reflex

automatic response to a sensory stimulus

neural networks

work groups for clusters of brain's neurons

electroencephalogram

amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that seep across the brain's surface; brain activity

position emission tomography scan

a visual display of the brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task; brain activity

fMRI

technique for revealing blood flow, shows brain function

association areas

areas of the cerebral cortex that deal with remembering, learning, thinking, and speaking

plasticity

brain's ability to change by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways

split brain

surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers connecting them

glial cells

provide nutrients and insulates myelin

neurogenesis

generate new brain cells

left hemisphere

conscious interpreter, active thinking

right hemisphere

simple requests, quick responses, emotional and easy

endorphins

natural opiate released in response to pain and exercise

spinal cord

info highway that connects peripheral nervous system with brain

magnetic resonance imaging

brain scans shows pictures of the brains soft tissue; brain structure

synaptic gap

axon terminal of one neuron is separated from the receiving neuron

spinal cord

neural fibers traveling to and from the brain controls simple movements

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