← Forensics Chapter 1 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Forensics The application of science to the criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle He is said to be the one who introduced the idea of forensic science to the world Mathieu Orfila Father of forensic science. He wrote the first treatise on poisons. Alphonse Bertillon Father of criminal identification. Anthropometry: taking body measurements to individualize people. Francis Galton Father of Fingerprints, developed a methodology of classifying them for filing. He wrote a book on it in 1892. Dr. Karl Landsteiner He discovered blood types. Valuable for identification. Leon Lattes Devised a relatively simple way of finding the blood group of a dried blood stain. Calvin Goddard Developed the comparison microscope used to compare firearms. Walter C. McCrone Applied microscopy to analytical problems, mostly forensics. Used microscopes for evidence. Hans Gross Wrote the first book on applying science to criminal investigation. Edmund Locard Locard's exchange principal: When two objects come in contact with one another there is a cross transfer of materials. Connects people to crimes. First forensic crime lab? 1923 LA How does the British and US criminal system compare? England has 6 regional labs. Labs charge a fee for police usage based on examinations for certain types of physical evidence. Britain: much more centralized forensics industry. It is more government run. Increase in crime labs due to what? 1960s, drugs. Miranda warning instituted: gave people the right to remain silent. Therefore, people didn't confess and thus scientific evidence was needed to back up criminal cases. Drugs needed to be sent to crime labs for drug related arrests. Also, DNA profiling: labs have been expanded to meet the needs of DNA evidence. What are the four major federal crime labs? FBI BATF DEA USPS Forensics in Canada Forensics are provided by the government funded industries. 6 royal Canadian regional labs center for forensic sciences in Toronto institution for legal medicine and police science in Montreal What are the five basic services all crime labs offer? Firearms Document examination photography biology physical science What are some optional services a crime lab may offer? Toxicology unit Fingerprint unit Polygraph unit-for investigator not scientist CSI unit. Frye Vs. USA Frye Standard: Evidence, techniques, procedures, must be generally accepted by the scientific community. Federal Rules of Evidence A more flexible way of determining what is admissible in court: Is the testimony based on sufficient facts? is it the product of reliable principles and methods? Has the witness applied the principles to the facts of the case? Daubert V. Merrel Dow Pharmaceuticals Supreme court decided that the federal rules of were a better method do decide on admissible evidence Judge as a gate- keeper to decide what evidence can or cannot be used, Kumho Tire Vs. Carmichael Ruled that the gate keeping of the trial judge applied to not just scientific testimony, but all testimony. Judge could be the gatekeeper for everything. Coppolino V. State Medical examiner testified that the victim died of overdoce of succinylcholine chloride. The drug had never been tested in the human body. The medical examiner determined high levels of this inside the victim's body. The defense said the argument couldn't be used because the test never had been done before. however, court allowed this new form of testing. Gate keeper: allowing new science. Expert witness An individual whom the court determines to possess knowledge relevant to the trial. rules in favor of one side. uses outside, not scientific, or scientific, knowledge. Forensic pathology Investigates sudden, unnatural, unexplained, or violent deaths in order to find cause of death. Autopsy (five ways to die) Natural, undetermined, homicide, suicide, accident. Rigor mortis stiffening of muscles from 24-36 hours after death. Livor Mortis up to 12 hours after death. Settling of blood in areas closest to ground or lowest point. blood seeps out within the body. Can be seen by a purple color on the outside. Algor Mortis begins about an hour after death. The body loses hear 1-1.5 degrees F per hour until it reached ambient or room temperature. Forensic Anthropology identification and examination of human skeletal remains People can paint a picture of the person as he/ she lived Forensic Entomology The study of insects and their relation to a crime investigation blowflies are the first to infest the body. Bugs consume human organs and tissue after death Cold temps: hinder egg development. Forensic Psychiatry Relationship between human behavior and legal proceedings. Criminal and civil cases: Civil: determine whether people are competent to make decisions about preparing wills, settling property, or refusing medical treatment. Criminal: evaluate behavioral disorders and determine whether people are competent to stand trial behavioral patterns of criminals Forensic Odontology Help identify victim when body is left in an unidentifiable state. Teeth: contain enamel, the hardest substance in the body, outlasts tissues and organs. Bite mark analysis. Forensic Engineering Failure analysis, accident reconstruction, causes and origins of fires of explosions. Accident scene review Forensic Computer and Digital analysis Preservation and examination of information derived from computers, cell phones and other digital devices. Recover deleted or overwritten data from a computer's hard drive and the tracking of hacking activity.