What does ASRT stand for?
American Society of Radiologic Technologists.
The Device that recieves the energy of the x-ray beam and forms the image of the body part?
Image receptor (IR)
What are the four Image receptors in diagnostic radiology?
1.) Cassette with film, 2.) Image plate, 3.) direct radiography, and 4.) Fluoroscopic screen.
Real-time radiography displayed on television screen live.
What seven standpoints should a radiographer study a radiograph from?
Superimposition, Adjacent structures, Optical Density, Contrast, Recorded Detail, Magnification, and Shape Distortion.
Known as degree of blackness when associated with radiographic film and as brightness when describing appearance on a digital display monitor.
OD or optical density
The difference in desity between any two areas on a radiograph.
Low-Contrast displays _____ density levels, and High-Contrast displays _____ density levels.
Many, and Few
What is the primary controlling factor of radographic contrast is _____?
Kilovoltage peak (kVp)
The ability to visualize small structrues on a radiographic image is conidered?
Recorded detail is primarily controlled by what eight factors?
Geometry, Film, IP phosphor, Flat panel detector, Distance, Screen, Focal spot size, and Motion.
How far the body part is from the IR is what?
Object-to-Image receptor distance or OID
How far the x-ray tube is from the IR is what?
Source-to-Image receptor distance or SID
OID and SID are controlling factor when talking about the degree of _____?
The misrepresentation of the size or shape of any anatomic structure.
What are the five primary controlling factors for shape distortion?
Alignment, Central Ray, Anatomic Part, IR, and Angulation
Refers to the patient standing erect with the face and eyes directed forward, arms extended by the sides with palms of the hands facing forward, heels together, and toes pointing anteriorly.
Lateral radiographs are obtained with the patients _____ or _____ side againts the IR.
Right or Left
If the patient is rotated somwhat during the exam and the radiograph is viewed in anatomic position we are talking about?
Who is responsible for obtaining a patient's history?
The destruction of all microorganisms, usually by heat or chemicals, is known as what?
Who issued reccomendations that all blood and certain other bodily fluids be handled as thought they contained pathogenic microorganisms.
What are the three types of muscular tissue that affect motion?
Smooth, Cardiac, and Striated muscle tissue
What are the two muscular tissues that produce involuntary motion?
Smooth, and Cardiac
What muscular tissue is responsible for voluntary motion?
Heart pulsation, chill, Peristalsis, Tremor, Spasm, and Pain are all causes of what?
What is the primary method of reducing involuntary motion?
Control the length of exposure time, less is better
Nervousness, discomfort, excitability, mental illness, fear, age, and breathing area all causes of what?
What are five ways to control voluntary motion?
1.) Giving clear instructions, 2.) providing patient comfort, 3.) adjusting support devices, 4.) applying immobilization, and 5.) decreasing exposure time
Clear instructions to the patient can often save what (3)?
Film, Time, and radiation exposure.
Term meaning it cannot be penetrated easily by x-rays.
All radiographs must include what information?
Date, patient's name or ID number, right or left Marker, and Institution Identity
Identification on radiographs is vital in what (3)?
Follow up exams, comparison studies, and medicolegal cases
The three general positions of the IR are what?
Lengthwise, Crosswise, and Diagonal
Usually we want the part to be x-rayed as _____ as possible to the IR?
What are the four most commonly used film sizes?
9 by 9, 8 by 10, 11 by 12, and 14 by 17(35cmx43cm)
When should you angle the Central Ray?
When trying not to superimpose structures, curved structure must not be stacked, going through an angled joint, when going through angle structure w/out foreshortening or elongation
SID directly affects what?
magnification, recorded detail, and patient dose
Why is a 72in SID used for most chest x-rays?
Necessary to ensure lungs fit on IR and that heart is not technically enlarged for diagnosis purposes.
Collimation reduces what?
Patient dose and scatter resulting in better recorded detail
When should gonadal shielding be used?
CR plates are sensitive to what?
What factors need to be considered for correct technique?
mA, kVp, Exposure Time, AECs, SID, Grid, Film and screen speed number, and electric supply
What are the three ways you verify the patient.
1.) Say name, 2.) spell name, and 3.) verify birthdate.
What are the three parts of the "meet and greet".
1.) Verify the patient three ways, 2.) introduce yourself, and 3.) verify order.
What is three part alignment.
1.) Central ray (x-ray tube), 2.) center of image receptor, and 3.) center of patient's part.
What are three ways of processing images.
1.) Conventional method, 2.) CR system, and 3.) DR system.
What is it called when structures lie directly on top of one another in an image.
How many projections for joints.
Joints require a minimum of three projections; two 90 degrees apart from each other and one 45 degree oblique.
How many projections for long bones
Long bones require at least two projections 90 degrees apart. Both joints must be included on images.
Why do we collimate the x-ray beam.
It improves image quality and reduces patient exposure.
Recorded detail is primarily controlled by what 4 factors.
1.) Geometry or how you set up the patient, IR, and tube, 2.) IR properties, 3.) focal spot size, and 4.) motion.
What are adjacent structures.
each anatomic structure must be campared with that of adjacent structures.
The greater the SID, the less the body part is ________ and the greater the _____.
The greater the SID, the less the body part is magnified and the greater the recored detail.
Why do we use 72 inches for the SID for a chest x-ray
1.) to ensure that the lungs fit on the IR and 2.) to ensure that the heart is not magnified/enlarged.