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Memorize Rutherford's, Dalton's, Schrodinger's, and Thompson's model of the atom.

Dalton's Atomic Model

All matter is made up of atoms (small, indivisible, indestructible, fundamental particles) - PARTICLE THEORY OF MATTER

Dalton's Atomic Model

Atoms can neither be created nor destroyed (they persist unchanged for all eternity)

Dalton's Atomic Model

Atoms of a particular element are alike (in size, mass, and properties)

Dalton's Atomic Model

Atoms of different elements are different from one another (different sizes, masses, and properties)

Dalton's Atomic Model

A chemical reaction involves either the union or the separation of individual atoms.

Dalton's Atomic Model

Ball and hook model

The Law of conservation of matter and the Law of definite composition (in a pure chemical compound)

Evidence Dalton based his model on

Thompson's Atomic Model

Plum pudding model - positive pudding sprinkled with negative electrons

Thompson's Atomic Model

electrons are small, negatively charged particles

Atoms behave as if they are electrically neutral

Evidence for Thompson's model

Helped update the image of what an atom looks like—not a ball and hook and Discovered the first subatomic particle (the electron) - atoms are not the fundamental particles of matter

How Thompson's model improved on Dalton's

Rutherford's Atomic Model

Atom is mostly empty space with a tiny, dense nucleus

Rutherford's Atomic Model

Electrons move around nucleus in some fashion

He shot alpha particles at gold foil and they mostly went through but some were deflected in different directions because they happened to hit the nucleus of a gold atom

Experiment Rutherford based his model on

Rutherford shoots alpha particles at gold foil and they mostly went through but some were deflected in different directions because they happened to hit the nucleus of a gold atom

The Alpha-Particle Experiment

Discovered the nucleus - there must be a center of positive energy rather than positive pudding

How did Rutherford improve on Thompson's model?

Electrons orbit the nucleus in shells determined by fixed energies (quantized)—can jump levels when absorbing or emitting energy

Bohr's Atomic Model

Electrons at lower energies are more tightly bound to the nucleus, making the atom more stable

Bohr's Atomic Model

Who's work was Bohr's model based on?

Max Planck

How did Bohr improve on Thompson's Model?

He provided a more accurate image of what an atom looks like and how it works and explained how electrons move in the atom

Modern Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom

Uncertainty principal - electrons move and are likely to be within an area at any given time - orbitals

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