BIO TEST 1

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In what way(s) is the science of biology influencing and changing our culture?

all of the above

What are the two main processes that ecosystems depend upon?

nutrient cycling and energy flow

Which of the following is not recycled but is lost from ecosystems?

energy

Relative to prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells are usually ______.

larger and more complex

Humans are composed of ______ cells.

eukaryotic

What name is given to the functional compartments of a cell?

organelles

What are eukaryotic genes composed of

DNA

What is a gene?

a unit of heredity

The human genome consists of about ______ chemical letters.

3 billion

Taxonomy is the ______.

naming and classifying of species

How does taxonomy assist biologists?

by categorizing diverse items into smaller and smaller numbers of groups

Which domain(s) consist(s) of prokaryotic cells?

Bacteria and Archaea

What accounts for the different breeds of domesticated dogs?

artificial selection

What is the difference between discovery science and hypothesis-driven science?

Discovery science-describing nature
hypothesis-driven science-explain nature.

Discovery science is primarily based on ______.

observation

How does inductive reasoning differ from deductive reasoning?

Inductive reasoning-specific to the general, deductive reasoning-general to the specific.

______ is an example of an element.

water

essential to life and a trace element?

iodine

Positive charge?

protons>electrons

All atoms of an element have the same number of ______.

protons

Atomic mass - atomic number equals

neutrons

atomic number=

protons and electrons

Isotopes of an element have the same number of ______ and different numbers of ______

protons . . . neutrons

How do radioactive isotopes differ from isotopes?

Radioactive isotopes are unstable; isotopes are stable.

The second electron shell of an atom can hold a maximum of ______ electron(s).

8

Nitrogen has an atomic number of 7; therefore, it has ______ electrons in its outermost electron shell.

5

atom with an electrical charge is a(n) ______.

ion

In the following reaction, what type of bond is holding the two atoms together?
K + Cl → K+ + Cl— → KCl

ionic

What name is given to bonds that involve the sharing of electrons?

covalent

Sulfur has an atomic number of 16. How many covalent bonds can sulfur form?

2

The hydrogens and oxygen of a water molecule are held together by ______ bonds.

covalent

Why is water considered a polar molecule?

The oxygen end of the molecule has a slight negative charge, and the hydrogen end has a slight positive charge.

Adjacent water molecules are joined by ______ bonds.

hydrogen

Adjacent water molecules are connected by the ______.

electrical attraction between the hydrogen of one water molecule and the oxygen of another water molecule

How many oxygen atoms are in the products of the following reaction?
C6H12O6 + 6 H2O + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 12 H2O

24

What are the reactant(s) in the following chemical reaction?
C6H12O6 + 6 H2O + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 12 H2O

C6H12O6, H2O, and O2

The tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick together is called ______.

cohesion

Sugar dissolves when stirred into water. The sugar is the ______, the water is the ______, and the sweetened water is the ______.

solute . . . solvent . . . solution

As water freezes ______.

its molecules move farther apart

A base ______.

removes H+ ions

) The lower the pH of a solution, the ______.

more acidic the solution

What name is given to substances that resist changes in pH?

buffers

A single carbon atom can form a maximum of ______ covalent bond(s).

4

______ is a hydroxyl group.

OH

In the following reaction, galactose is a ______.
galactose + glucose → lactose + water

monomer

What name is given to the following reaction?
galactose + glucose → lactose + water

dehydration reaction

What name is given to the following reaction?
sucrose + water → glucose + fructose

hydrolysis

Carbohydrates typically include ______.

C, H, and O atoms

Glucose and fructose are?

isomers

Complete the equation:
monosaccharide + monosaccharide → ______ + water

disaccharide

In the following equation, lactose is a ______.
galactose + glucose → lactose + water

disaccharide

Which of the following is an example of a polysaccharide?

starch

Animals store carbohydrates as ______.

glycogen

Cellulose is an example of ______.

fiber

Which of the following is hydrophilic?

cellulose

"Look at this ______ in my coffee!"

hydrophobic substance

A glycerol with three fatty acids attached is referred to as a ______.

fat

What name is given to the following reaction?
glycerol + 3 fatty acids → triglyceride + 3 water molecules

dehydration reaction

Saturated fats are saturated with ______.

hydrogen

By definition, what type of fatty acid has double bonds?

unsaturated

Which of the following is lowest in unsaturated fats?

beef

A fat that is hydrogenated is ______.

more solid

Proteins are polymers constructed from ______ monomers

amino acid

What is the name given to the reaction that breaks peptide bonds?

hydrolysis

A protein's function is dependent on its ______.

shape

Destruction of a protein's shape is called _______.

denaturation

Nucleic acids are polymers of ______ monomers.

nucleotide

A specific stretch of DNA that programs the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is a ______.

gene

DNA nucleotides include ______.

tgac

Which of the following is true with regard to a DNA molecule?

a=t and c=g

If one strand of a DNA double helix has the sequence AGTACTG, what will be the sequence of the other strand?

TCATGAC

How does RNA differ from DNA?

uracil vs thymine.

The ability to tolerate lactose throughout life is most likely to be seen in ______.

cultures that keep dairy herds

What type of microscope would be best for studying the detailed structure of the surface of a plasma membrane?

scanning electron microscope

one difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells is that eukaryotic cells ______ prokaryotic cells.

have membrane-bound organelles, which are lacking in

When mixed with water, phospholipids spontaneously form membranes because they ______.

have hydrophilic phosphate groups that are attracted to water and hydrophobic fatty acid tails that avoid water

The concept of a membrane as a fluid mosaic reflects the ability of ______.

phospholipids and most proteins to drift about in the plane of the membrane

The extracellular coats of cells ______.

protect and support cells

______ store the information necessary to produce proteins.

genes

The nuclear envelope is composed of ______.

a double membrane

The structural combination of DNA and protein forms ______.

chromatin

What name is given to the organelle that manufactures the components of ribosomes?

nucleolus

Many antibiotic drugs are effective against bacteria without hurting humans because the antibiotics rely upon differences in the structure of human and bacterial ______.

ribosomes

Where does protein synthesis take place?

ribosomes

The endomembrane system includes ______.

glver

A hormone that will be secreted from the cell is manufactured by ribosomes _____.

attached to the er

Functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum include ______.

lipid synthesis, steroid synthesis, and drug detoxification

Which of the following is a function of the Golgi apparatus?

protein modification

Lysosomes are responsible for ______.

digestion of organic matter inside the cell

) If a cell's lysosomes burst, the cell would ______.

DIGEST ITSELF

Tay-Sachs disease results from ______ lacking a specific type of lipid-digesting enzyme.

LYSOSOMES

In plant cells, ______ may contain organic nutrients, pigments, and poisons

central vacuoles

Plant cells, unlike animal cells, are characterized by the presence of a ______.

cell wall and central vacuole

Similar to the nucleus, chloroplasts and mitochondria are ______.

surrounded by two membranes

Cellular respiration can be described as the conversion of the energy ______.

stored in food molecules to energy stored in ATP

Which of the following is an adaptation to increase the surface area of a part of a cell that is involved in cellular respiration?

the cristae of a mitochondrion

Tobacco smokers

obacco interferes with the sweeping motion of cilia that aids in the movement of the egg toward the uterus.

Which of the following is a measure of disorder?

entropy

Glucose molecules provide energy to power the swimming motion of sperm. In this example, the sperm are changing ______.

chemical energy into kinetic energy

You have a 2-liter bottle of liquid water at 0°C. About how many Calories are needed to heat up the water to 100°C?

200 Calories

Energy is transferred from ATP to other molecules by transferring a(n) ______.

phosphate group

Anything that prevents ATP formation will most likely ______.

result in cell death

The sum total of all the chemical reactions that occur in organisms is called ______.

metabolism

Enzymes increase the rate of a reaction by

decreasing activation energy

Enzymes catalyze specific reactions T/F

T

Which component of the following reaction is the enzyme?
sucrose + sucrase + water → sucrase + glucose + fructose

sucrase

Which component of the following reaction is the substrate?
sucrose + sucrase + water → sucrase + glucose + fructose

sucrose

Diffusion is an example of ______.

passive transport

Diffusion proceeds until

equilibrium is reached

Facilitated diffusion across a biological membrane requires ______ and moves a substance ______ its concentration gradient.

C) transport proteins . . . down

A balloon permeable to water but not to glucose contains a 10% glucose solution. A beaker contains a 5% glucose solution. Which of the following is true?

the balloon is hypertonic relative to beaker.

When two solutions that differ in solute concentration are placed on either side of a selectively permeable membrane, and osmosis is allowed to take place, the water will ______.

exhibit a net movement to the side with lower water concentration

A cell that neither gains nor loses water when it is immersed in a solution is ______.

isotonic to its solution

Some protozoans have special organelles called contractile vacuoles that continually eliminate excess water from the cell. The presence of these organelles tells you that the environment ______.

is hypotonic to the protozoan

if placed in tap water, an animal cell will undergo lysis, whereas a plant cell will not. What accounts for this difference?

inelasticity and strength of the plant cell wall

In a hypotonic solution, a plant cell will ______.

become turgid

Which of the following processes could result in the net movement of a substance into a cell, if the substance is more concentrated in the cell than in the surroundings?

active transport

______ is to eating as ______ is to drinking.

Phagocytosis . . . pinocytosis

Certain cells that line the stomach synthesize a digestive enzyme and secrete it into the stomach. This enzyme is a protein. Which of the following processes could be responsible for its secretion?

exocytosis

Relaying a message from a receptor protein to a molecule that performs a specific function within a cell is called ______.

signal transduction

Which of the following is most like a signal transduction pathway in a cell?

a person answering the door to their home after someone rings the doorbell

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