CHAPTER 2: CAUSES OF CRIME

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DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

The act of willful neglect or physical violence that occurs within a familial or intimate relationship.

CRIMINOLOGY

The scientific study of crime and the causes of criminal behavior.

CRIMINOLOGIST

A specialist in the field of crime and the causes of criminal behavior.

THEORY

An explanation of a happening or circumstance that is based on observation, experimentation, and reasoning.

HYPOTHESIS

A possible explanation for an observed occurrence that can be tested by further investigation.

CHOICE THEORY

A school of criminology that holds that wrongdoers act as if they weigh the possible benefits of criminal delinquent activirty agaisnt the expected cost of being apprehended. When the benefits are greater than the expected cost, the offender will make a rational choic to commit a crime or delinquent act.

CLASSICAL CRIMINOLGY

A school of criminology based on the belief that individualshave free will to engage in any behavior including criminal behavior.To deter criminal behavior society must hold wrongdoers responsible for their actions by punishing them.

UTILITARIANISM

An approach to ethical reasoning in which the correct decision is the one that results in the greatest amount f good for the greastest number of people effected by that decision.

POSITIVISM

A school of the social science that sees criminal and delinquent behavior as the result of biological, psychological, and social forces. Because wrongdoers are driven to deviancy by external factors, they should not be punished but treated to lessen the influence of those factors

BIOLOGY

Science of living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, and origin.

PSYCHOLOGY

Scientific study of mental processes and behavior.

GENETICS

The study of how certain traits or qualities are transmitted from parents to their offspring.

HORMONE

A chemicla substance, produced in tissue and conveyed in the bloodstream. that controls certain cellular and bodily functions such as growth and reproduction.

TESTOSTERONE

The hrmone primarily responsible for the production of sperm and the development of male secondary sex characteristics suach as the growth of facial and pubic hair and the change of voice pitch.

NEUROTRANSMITTER

A chemical that transmits nerve impulses between nerve cells and from nerve cells to the brain.

PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY

Sigmund Freud's theory that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives.

SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION THEORY

The theory that deviant behavior is more likely in communities where social insitutions such as family, schools, and the criminal justice system fail to exert control over the population.

STRAIN THEORY

The assumption that crime is the result of fustration felt by individuals who cannot reach their financial and personal goals through legitimate means.

ANOMIE

A condition in which the individual suffers from the breakdown or absence of social norms. Codition occurs when a person is disconnected from these norms or rejects them as inconsistent with his or her personal goals.

CULTURAL DEVIANCE THEORY

A branch of social structure theory based on the assumption that members of certain subcultures reject the values of the dominant culture through deviant behavior patterns.

SUBCULTURE

A group exhibiting certain values and behavior patterns that distinguish it from the domiant culture.

SOCIAL PROCESS THEORIES

A school of criminology that considers criminal behavior to be the predictable result of a persons interaction with his or her enviroment. everyone has the ptentional for their wrongdoing.

LEARNING THEORY

The hypothesis that delinquents and criminals must be taught both the pratical and emotional skills neccessary to particpate in illegal activity.

CONTROL THEORY

A series of theories that assume that

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