Meiosis-Biology

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Do chromosomes replicate or double before meiosis?

replicate

How many divisions occur in meiosis?

2

How many divisions occur in mitosis?

1

What is another name for meiosis?

reduction

What is the original cell that divides by meiosis called?

diploid (2n)

How many daughter cells can be produced by meiosis?

4

How many daughter cells can be produced by mitosis?

2

What is the chromosome number of the daughter cells produced by meiosis?

half the number of the chromosomes as the original cells

What are the daughter cells called that are produced by meiosis?

gametes

What are the 2 types of meiosis?

meiosis 1, meiosis 2

Where does spermatogenesis occur?

testes

Where does oogenesis occur?

ovaries

After one division, how many chromosomes are in the cells? Are they double or single stranded?

23, double

Is meiosis sexual or asexual reproduction?

sexual

Are eggs and sperm haploid or diploid?

haploid

What process joins the egg and sperm to restore the original chromosome number of the organism?

fertilization

What has the same genes and the same alleles?

sister chromatids

When a sperm fertilizes an egg, a new 2n cell forms called what?

zygote (it is diploid)

What are homologs?

pairs of sister chromatids that have the same genes, but may have different alleles

What reduces the chromosome number by half?

division in meiosis

What restores the chromosome number?

fertalization

In Meiosis 1 what separates?

homologs

In Meiosis 2 what separates?

sister chromatids

What 2 things occur in Early Prophase 1?

1. homologs pair, 2. crossing over occurs

What 3 things happen in Late Prophase 1?

1. chromosomes condense, 2. spindles form, 3. nuclear envelope fragments

What is a tetrad?

homologus chromosomes combine to form a tetrad

What is synapsis?

the process in propase 1 that forms tetrads

Once tetrads form, what happens to the homologus chromosomes?

pieces of chromosomes or genes are exchanged (cross-over each other)

What does crossing-over result in?

genetic recombination in the offspring

What happens during Metaphase 1?

homologus pairs of chromosomes align along the equator of the cell

What 2 things happen in Anaphase 1?

1. homologs separate and move to opposite poles, 2. sister chromatids remain attached at their centromeres

What 3 things happen in Telophase 1?

1. nuclear envelope reassembles, 2. spindle disappears, 3. cytokinesis divides cell into two

At the beginning of Meiosis II, each cell has how many homologs of each chromosome?

only 1 is present

Sister chromatids carry _________ genetic information

identical

Name the stages of Meiosis II

Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II

What happens in Prophase II?

nuclear envelope fragments; spindles form

The gametes at the end of Meiosis 2 will have how many copies of a gene for a trait?

Meiosis 2 produces gametes with one copy of each chromosome and thus one copy of each gene

Where are the sister chromatids in Metaphase 2?

chromosomes align along the equator of the cell/ separate and move to opposite poles

Name 4 things that occur in Telophase II

1. nuclear envelope assembles, 2. chromosomes decondense, 3. spindle disappears, 4. cytokinesis divides cell into two

Meiosis results in how many haploid cells?

4

How many copies of each chromosome does each gamete have in meiosis?

1

How many alleles does each gene have in different combinations?

1

Immature sperm cells are called what?

spermatids

Approximately how many sperm do men produce each day?

250 million

Name 4 cells produced by oogenesis

3 polar bodies and 1 egg

What are immature eggs?

oocyte

How often do females produce an ooctye?

one oocyte matures into an ovum (egg) every 28 days

What age does producing of an oocyte occur?

puberty

What happens to the polar bodies that oogenesis produces?

it dies

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