Who were the 1st Europeans to reach North America?
Vikings, in 1000 AD
reached Newfoundland and founded colonies that didn't lasted between 10-15 years, then were abandoned
No impact on American history... and thats why were learning about it in American History class. Makes sense.
Centralized government in Europe
required armies, whos soldiers worked for Gold that they got in Africa ("I'm gonna hire an army and beat your ass!")
Henry the Navigator
set up a naval ("In this case, we're talking about the seas, not your belly button.") school in Portugal to train sailors for the Atlantic.
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 was the first European to get around the Cape of Good Hope, (formally "The Cape of Storms," "but 'Cape of Good Hope' sounds more inviting.") thus establishing a sea route from the Atlantic to Asia
Ferdinand and Isabella
During the late 15th century, they became King and Queen of a united Spain (uniting Aragon and Castile) after centuries of Islamic domination. Together, they made Spain a strong Christian nation and also provided funding to overseas exploration, notably Christopher Columbus.
Spain had been fighting the Muslims for 600 years, and finally (in 1492 "Columbus sailed the ocean blue" AND...) Spain defeated the Muslims.
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to Asia and the Indies (thus "Indians"; always believed he had reached it "He set out to reach the Indies, and damnit, he did!" He made 3 voyages to the New World between 1492-1506.
Why did Spain accept Columbus' proposal and Portugal reject it?
They wanted to get their name out there because they had done nothing except for speak Spanish and eat their version of Chipotle and fight Muslims for several hundred years, they had nothing to loose. Portugal had their wingwongs on Africa and the Spice Trade so they were too busy to care.
Line of Demarkation
An imaginary line that the Pope drew through the New World. The land east of the line belonged to Portugal; the land west of the line belonged to Spain.
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route for the Portuguese Spice Trade.
Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; blown off course in 1500 and landed in Brazil. Close enough. He claims for Portugal (it's east of the Line).
The Italian sailor (also a map maker) who corrected Columbus's mistake, acknowledging the coasts of America as a New World. America is named after him when his name appears on the maps he makes of the Americas.
Spanish explorer who became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean in 1510 while exploring the Isthmus of Panama
Ponce de Leon
Discovered Florida looking for the Fountain of Youth and Gold, but didn't find much of either. This made the Spaniards the 1st Europeans to land on American soil.
Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world. Spain claims the Philippines (Philip=their king)
Soldiers of Spain who were drawn to the New World because they had nothing to do in Spain
A determined Spanish adventurer/Hildago/Conquistador, he crossed the Hispaniola to mainland Mexico with six hundred men, seventeen horses and ten canons. Within three years, he had taken captive the Aztec emperor Montezuma, conquered the rich Aztec empire and found Mexico City as the capital of New Spain. "He was kind of a pain in the ass..."
Reasons for the death of most Aztecs and Indians
They were not immune to the potentially fatal diseases common among Europeans such as small pox, measles, chicken pox, etc. Millions die.
Francisco Pizzaro (that's fun to say... Francisco...)
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Inca's in 1531; took control of Peru
Vasquez De Coronado
a Spanish conquistador, who visited New Mexico, Utah, and Arizona, and other parts of what are now the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542. He had hoped to conquer the mythical Seven Cities of Gold. "Give us the gold or else we're gonna convert you all to Christianity then kill you. Maybe not even in that order."
Hernando De Soto
Spanish explorer who discovered and claimed the Mississippi River for Spain
Italian-born navigator explored the coast of New England, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland. Gave England a claim in North America. He makes a settelment to catch and sell fish.
French navigator who led 3 voyages of exploration to the St Lawrence region (Canada) beginning in 1534 and claimed the area for France
Reasons for Europeans coming to the New World
Spanish, Portuguese: Gold
English: Religious freedom, new life with prosperity for younger sons who got nothing-"Well that's crap." (Primogeniture)
Believe that the COE is too Catholic and it needed to be "purified," not very well liked in England or by James I, forbid Christmas (and Mince Pie!) because it was "Pagan," no PDA
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
An English explorer and the half-brother of Walter Raleigh(<3), he spearheaded England's efforts to colonize Newfoundland. Sadly, before he could accomplish this, he lost his life while at sea in 1583:( He claimed Newfoundland for the Queen.
Sir Walter Raleigh!!!!
An English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. Named "Virginia" after England's virgin queen. In 1585, he sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is known as " The Lost Colony." Eventually executed by James I... jerk.
aka Spain's epic fail. The Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, because Philip said he had the rite to England because he was married to Liz's sister. It ended in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
A treaty was signed between England and Spain saying that England can now settle in the New World without fear of Spanish attack.
Son of Mary, Queen of Scots, who was executed by Elizabeth. He authorizes an expedition to settle in America- "Jamestown." Settlers are the "typical Daniel-like kinda guy."
Extreme Puritans who leave England because of religious persecution and because they want to start their own religion. They first go to Holland, but they don't like it so they move to Massachusetts (wanted to go to Virginia, but that didnt work out..."and the skipper isnt what we call competant.") Their ship was called the Mayflower. They were very strict and examined their consciences... "'Last Wednesday I was cross with neighbor Birmingham. I must apologize.' 'This morning I smacked my daughter. She deserved it.'"
the ship in which the Pilgrim Fathers sailed from England to Massachusetts in 1620. Mostly Separatists, but some tradesmen to help settle the colony.
This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule. It resembled a very Puritan/Presbyterian way of voting, because they also voted on the Church issues. No distinction between Church and state.
site of the first Thanksgiving in 1621. the first permanent European settlement in southern New England. Separatists were here. "This is not the typical plantation with the big house on the hill with all the cotton and all that crap."
celebration of the Pilgrims one year after they landed, 4th Thursday in November "No man, you have a party! You eat it!"
Massachusetts Bay Colony
King Charles (who hated them) gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government. It prospered immediatley because it was well planned and well lead.
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, he was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
1) The Governor is elected by all free church members
2) Each village and settlement elects two members to Legislature
3) Governor appoints governors council
-its a theocracy
rule by religious elite, where sin is also a crime
founded in 1636 to train clergymen for Puritans
laws that required children to attend school for free, paid for by tax
Has a very public falling out with the Congregationalist Church because he acknowledged the theocracy in Massechusetts, and didn't like it. He made a list of proposed reforms, and as a result, he is arrested. Upon his release, he escapes with some followers to the south to Narrogansett Bay (Rhode Island) in 1635.
Roger Williams' Proposed Reforms
1) Complete separation of the Church and civil affairs
2) Complete separation from the COE
3) End to mandatory worship (you had to pay a Recusanry Fine if you didn't got to service on Sunday)
Fine for not complying with worship requirements of the Church of England.
She was a mystic who preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders, and that all people could be saved. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637 because she was charged with sedition. Her followers founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639. "They were like, 'You're goin to hell in a handbasket and there ain't a damn thing you can do about it!'"
Thomas Hooker and John Davenport
Puritan ministers who led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because they believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. They wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government. Both were co-founders of the settlement in New Haven.
What colonies were formed from the Puritan settlement in MBC?
Massechusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Maine
King Philip's War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion. Many Pequot Indians were brutally murdered.
Goal-gold, not very well planned out, progess is very slow until they discover they can market tobacco
Social Status in Jamestown
Planters->family farmers->manufacturing class
person who agreed to work for a colonial employer for a specified time (usually 7 years) in exchange for passage to America. Many escaped and started their own lives in the West.
Slaves from Africa brought to the Americas because of cheap labor, forced to work in tobacco feilds, highest demand is in the Carribean (Spanish), Portuguese import slaves to Brazil, mostly in the South but some in MBC,
John Calvert aka "Lord Baltimore"
the proprietor of Maryland (after the French queen Marie) - welcomed settlers of many religions - a refuge for Catholics
a settlement established by the Dutch near the mouth of Hudson River and the southern end of Manhattan Island
between England and Holland in 1650-1675
supporters of Charles I and II; rewarded by granting them colonial priveleges in America; named their region "Carolina" after Charles' wife Caroline
this Caribbean island developed close commercial ties with Southern Carolina, where many of its natives immigrated to, bringing along their ideas of a slave- based plantation society. Large percent of Puritans imigrated here. Strict slave code and used cash crops for profit.
the plateau between the coastal plain and the Appalachian Mountains: parts of Virginia and North and South Carolina and Georgia and Alabama. Fertile land with lots of trees.
Not fertile, pine trees, cotton farming
Cash crops in the Carolinas
South: Rice (traded to Barbados)
A thick, dark brown syrup created by boiling down raw sugar that was made in the West Indies and the Carolinas and sold to New England and elsewhere. Base of the triangle trade.
products used to build ships (pitch, tar, turpentine)
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preached a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn, who founded Pennsylvania. Believed that the light of grace enlightens ALL men. No liturgy, clergy, sacraments, or direct guidance from Scripture, but they sing songs, dance, and have irregular meetings in meeting halls (no churches). 3 were hung in MBC. Not really Christian, they didn't believe Christ was divine. They had the best relationships with the Indians because they bought their land.
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.
Noted Quaker (William Penn) asks the king to buy land in the New World for Quakers
Charter of Pennsylvania
All free citizens (except women) have a vote (including black men) "This is a huge but." Religious freedom was guranteed to everyone except for Catholics and Jews.
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. He wanted to make it a refuge for English "criminals" and the poor. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that he was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and him to lose his position as governor.
Refuge for poor and "criminals," founded by James Oglethorpe
originally Swedish/Dutch settlement, given to William Penn in 1682; at first perceived as merely an appendage to Pennsylvania, but later its value was realized because of its shore line and river leading from the coast to Philadelphia.
originally a part of Massachusetts Bay, royal colony as of 1679, although it had the freedom to appoint its own governor (rather than king doing it)
the first colony established for Catholics by Lord Baltimore
Colony settled by the Puritans. It was very strict and eventually becomes the city of Boston.
colony the English peaceably took back from the Dutch, then given to James II, duke of York and Albany (not yet king), who held almost unlimited power of the colony. Religious tolerance and property protection were promised to the people of New York
English; poor tobacco farmers drift south from Virginia
settled by wealthy men who traded in sea port of Charlston (Charles town) used slaves to help grow cash crops (especially rice)
Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
Roger Williams founded. It has a policy of religious toleration. It became a safe place for dissenters (not really a specific group, pretty much all the unwanteds). It was the first place in America where people of all faiths-- including Jews--could worship freely.
Founded by Thomas Hooker and his followers to escape religious persecution. The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut defined the powers of colonial government and allowed more men to vote than in Massachusetts.
in 1681, Charles II awarded the land of PA to William Penn, in order to pay off a debt to his father. He established this colony as a refuge for Quakers.
Charter colony of a joint-stock company. About 90% of the colonists died the first year. Private land ownership in the colony attracted settlers. Becomes successful when tobacco is farmed
formed when James II gave part of his land in New York to his friends, Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley. The people were granted the right to elect an assembly.
the 2 major port cities on the southern coast
Charleston SC and Savanna GA
major port cities in the north
Boston MA, New York NY, and Philadelphia PA
Presbyterian, non English colonists known for their individualism and resentment of the King of England who moved into the Applachian mountains (settled KY)
A Puritan church document; In 1662, this allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
Salem Witch Trials
Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem, Massachusetts. 19 women were hung as witches, and 1 man was pressed to death as a wizard (and 4 women died in prison). Afterwards, most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake. This was a major trauma MBC, and could have only happened in MBC because of the theocracy. No other colonies would have accknowledged the accusations because they separated church and state.
large supercontinent that existed 250 million years ago
The first people who migrated to North America came by way of a __ __across the present-day Bering Strait
lived in the Southwestern United States. They built extensive irrigation systems to water their primary crop, which was corn (1st American corn growers). Their houses were multi-storied buildings made of adobe.
a group of First Nations/Native Americans that originally consisted of five nations: the Mohawk, the Oneida, the Onondaga, the Cayuga, and the Seneca.
Indian from the Iroquois tribe who was one of two men who persuaded five nations to unite and work together as a group and wanted peace with the colonists.
Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.
navigation device used by sailors that shows the stars and could help detect a ship's latitude
Powerful Aztec monarch who fell to Spanish conquerors
Don Juan de Onate
a Spanish conquistador who explored the areas of Mexico and what is now Texas and New Mexico in 1598. He was infamous for his cruelty to the Pueblo Indians. In the Battle of Acoma in 1599 he severed one foot of each Pueblo survivor.
Robert de LaSalle
He sailed for France and traveled down Mississippi River. He claimed the interior of North American continent for France government.
Belief that the Spanish only killed, tortured, and stole in the Americas while doing nothing good
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
Lord De La Warr
New governor of Jamestown who arrived in 1610, immediately imposing a military regime in Jamestown and declaring war against the Powhatan Confederacy. Employed "Irish tactics" in which his troops burned houses and cornfields.
A native Indian of America, daughter of Chief Powahatan, who was one of the first to marry an Englishman, John Rolfe, and return to England with him; about 1595-1617; Pocahontas' brave actions in saving John Smith paved the way for many positive English and Native relations.
Act of Toleration
A legal document that allowed all Christian religions in Maryland: Protestants invaded the Catholics in 1649 around Maryland: protected the Catholics religion from Protestant rage of sharing the land: Maryland became the #1 colony to shelter Catholics in the New World.
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
Criticized the Church of England, fled to Massachusetts Bay Colony, defended government's duty to enforce religious rules
The Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot. The colonists burned down their village and 400 were killed.
New England Confederation
a Union of four colonies consisting of the two Massachusetts colonies (The Bay colony and Plymouth colony) and the two Connecticut colonies (New Haven and scattered valley settlements) in 1643. The purpose of the confederation was to defend against enemies such as the Indians, French, Dutch, and prevent intercolonial problems that effected all four colonies.
Discovered what today is known as the Hudson River. Sailed for the Dutch even though he was originally from England. He was looking for a northwest passage through North America.