Matter and Chromatography Study Guide

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Matter can be changed

physically or chemically

Physical Change

change in state of matter, shape or form

Chemical Change

makes a new substance

Mass change when matter is changed

doesn't change in either

Endothermic

energy is absorbed or taken in, matter gets cold

Endothermic ex.

your hot food if you don't eat it fast enough

Exothermic

energy is released, matter gets hot

Exothermic ex.

an ice cube sitting out

Pure Substances

a single kind of matter that is pure, always has a specific makeup or composition and a specific set of properties

Mixture

has two or more subtances but not chemically combined

Heterogeneous Mixture

unevenly distributed subtances in the mixture, will settle when given time

Homogeneous Mixture

well mixed, will not settle, hard, but possible to separate

Solution

A special type of mixture where a liquid has a substance dissolved in it, homogeneous mixture, hard to separate

Solute

material being dissolved

Solvent

material that dissolves the solute

Chromatography

A physical process to determine what type of substances have been mixed together by separating them from one another

Solubility

The rate or speed at which a solute dissolves in the presence of a solvent

Solutes with a high solubility

disolve quickly

Solutes with a low solubility

disolve slowly

All solutes disolve at

a different rate

Retention Factor

is defined as the distance traveled by the solute divided by the distance traveled by the solvent

one or lower

Rf will always be

Chemistry

the study of the properties of matter and how matter changes

Matter

anything that has mass

Substance

a single kind of matter that is pure, having a specific makeup and specific properties

Physical property and chemical property

The two types of properties that all matter has

Element

the simplest substances that cannot be broken down by chemical or physical changes

Compound

A substance made of two or more elements chemically combined

Atom

basic particle of an element

Chemical Bond

The force that holds two atoms together

Molecule

a group of atoms that are joined together by chemical bonds that form a larger particle

Weight

the measure of the force of gravity on an object

Mass

the measure of how much matter an object contains

Volume

the amount of space that matter takes up

Density

The physical property that relates the mass and volume of an object or material

Pressure

the force pushing on a suface divided by the area of that suface

Vaporization

The change from a liquid to a gas

Gas

a state of matter with no definite shape or volume

fluid

a substance that flows

viscosity

the resistance of a liquid to flow

boiling

vaporization that occurs on and below the surface of a liquid

liquid

a state of matter that has a definite volume but no shape of its own

freezing

the change in state from a liquid to a solid

solid

a state of matter that has a definite volume and a definite shape

melting

the change in state from a solid to a liquid

graph

a diagram that tells how two variables are related

Sublimation

The phase change as a substance exchanges from a solid to a gas without passing through the intermediate state of a liquid

Deposition

the phase change as a substance changes from a gas to a solid without passing throught the intermediate state of a liquid

Condensation

the phase change as a substance from a gas to a liquid

Rf equation

distance dot traveled over distance the water went

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