APUSH American Revolution

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Mercantilisim

An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by selling more goods than they bought (favorable balance of trade). This theory said that a country's power depended mainly on its wealth.

Stamp Act 1765

Was issued in order to raise revenues to support the new British military force. Mandated the use of stamped paper certifying the payment of taxes. Colonist were angrily aroused and felt that this act was jeopardizing the basic right of the colonists as Englishmen.

Coercive Act 1774

also named as "Intolerable Acts"
1. a series of laws to punish colonists for dumping tea
2. closed Boston harbor until destroyed tea was paid for
3. suspended town meeting
4.appointed military governor
5. permitted trials to be in England viewed by jury not your own peers

Sons Of Liberty

A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.

Declaratory Act 1766

Passed at the same time that the Stamp Act was repealed, the Act declared that Parliament had the power to tax the colonies both internally and externally, and had absolute power over the colonial legislatures.

Boston Massacre 1770

British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.

Tea Act 1773

gave Britain's East India Company the right to export its merchandise directly to the colonies w/o paying any of the navigation taxes that were imposed on the colonial merchants. The company could undersell American merchants and monopolize the colonial sea trade.

Boston Port Act

Closed the tea-stained harbor until damages were paid and order could be ensured. Restrictions were placed on town meetings. And enforcing officials who killed a colonist could be sent to Britain for trial.

John Adams

A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the second President of the United States.

Lexington and Concord

The first battle of the Revolution in which British general Thomas Gage went after the stockpiled weapons of the colonists in Concord, Massachusetts., April 8, 1775: Gage leads 700 soldiers to confiscate colonial weapons and arrest Adam, and Hancock; April 19, 1775: 70 armed militia face British at Lexington (shot heard around the world); British retreat to Boston, suffer nearly 300 casualties along the way (concord)

Tories

a person who supported the British cause in the American Revolution; a loyalist

Battle of Bunker Hill

At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, the British troops were based in Boston. The British army had begun to fortify the Dorchester Heights near Boston, and so the Continental Army fortified Breed's Hill, north of Boston, to counter the British plan. British general Gage led two unsuccessful attempts to take this hill, before he finally seized it with the third assault. The British suffered heavy losses and lost any hope for a quick victory against the colonies. Although the battle centered around Breed's Hill, it was mistakenly named for nearby Bunker Hill.

Common Sense 1776

a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain

Regulators

These were vigilante groups active in the 1760s and 1770s in the western parts of North and South Carolina. They violently protested high taxes and insufficient representation in the colonial legislature.

Natural "unalienable" Rights

the idea that all people have the same rights from birth. Life, Liberty and Property-from John Locke in social contract originally and adapted by Thomas Jefferson in the Declaration and changed to Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness

Consent of the governed

agreement by the people of a nation to subject themselves to the authority to a government. Natural rights philosophers, such as John Locke, believe that any legitimate government must draw its authority from the consent of the governed.

Declaration of Independence

This document was
adopted on July 4, 1776. It
established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the
majority of this document.

Battle of Saratoga

Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.

John Paul Jones

Patriot naval leader who commanded the American ship Bonhomme Richard, which defeated the British ship Serapis in 1779.

Treaty of Paris 1783

This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River

Land Ordinance of 1785

A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.

Sugar Act of 1764

An act that raised tax revenue in the colonies for the crown. It also increased the duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies.

Virtual Representation

British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members

Stamp Act Congress

A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.

Charles Townshend

Charles Townshend was control of the British ministry and was nicknamed "Champagne Charley" for his brilliant speeches in Parliament while drunk. He persuaded Parliament in 1767 to pass the Townshend Acts. These new regulations was a light import duty on glass, white lead, paper, and tea. It was a tax that the colonist were greatly against and was a near start for rebellions to take place.

Non-importation Agreements

Agreements not to import goods from Great Britain. They were designed to put pressure on the British economy and force the repeal of unpopular parliamentary acts.

Committees of Correspondence

organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.

Intolerable Acts 1774

1) Shut down port of Boston, 2) limited the number of Boston town meetiings to one per year without permission of Englan, 3) colonists charged with major crimes would be tried in England, 4) Parliament passed the Quartering Act, where British soldiers were housed in colonial homes

Massachusetts Government Act

This was another of the Coercive Acts, which said that members of the Massachusetts assembly would no longer be elected, but instead would be appointed by the king. In response, the colonists elected a their own legislature which met in the interior of the colony.

Administration of Justice Act

1774-Allowed a soldier or official accused of a crime to be tried outside the colony in British courts (Intolerable Act)

Patriots

American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won

Second Continental Congress

Convened in May 1775, the Congress opposed the drastic move toward complete independence from Britain. In an effort to reach a reconciliation, the Congress offered peace under the conditions that there be a cease-fire in Boston, that the Coercive Acts be repealed, and that negotiations begin immediately. King George III rejected the petition., It met again in 1776 and drafted and signed the Declaration of Independence, which justified the Revolutionary War and declared that the colonies should be independent of Britain.

Benedict Arnold

He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.

Rights of Englishmen

1. Habeas Corpus (trial by jury, need evidence) 2. Protection in the home (privacy) 3. No taxation without representation

Power of the Purse

a power committees hold to add money for certain programs, cutting spending on others, or completely end funding for some

Social Contract Theory

The belief that people are free and equal by natural right, and that this in turn requires that all people give their consent to be governed; espoused by John Locke and influential in the writing of the declaration of independence.

Baron von Steuben

volunteer, general in Prussia,offered help to Patriots after Washington won the battles at Trenton & Princeton, arrived at Valley Forge in the spring of 1778

Benjamin Franklin

an American public official, writer, scientist, and printer; proposed a plan for union at the Albany Congress (1754) and played a major part in the American Revolution; helped secure French support for the colonists, negotiated Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution (1787); numerous scientific and practical innovations included the lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove

Yorktown 1781

the last major engagement/battle of the war. Washington's armies along with the French naval fleet under de Grasse surrounded British general Charles Cornwallis and received his surrender It ended major engagements in the colonies, thus putting an "end" to the war.

Lafayette

served in the American Revolutionary War both as a general and as a diplomat and was a key figure in the early phases of the French Revolution, serving in the Estates General and the subsequent National Constituent Assembly.

Northwest Ordinance

Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states

Quartering Act of 1765

Act forcing colonists to house and supply British forces in the colonies; created more resentment; seen as assault on liberties..

Direct Representation

a system of choosing delegates to a representative assembly in which citizens vote directly for the delegates who will represent them

Proclamation Act of 1763

prohibited colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. Prevent future hostilities between colonists and Native Americans. Colonists reacted with anger and defiance

Townshend Acts 1767

levied taxes on imported items such as paper, glass, and tea; these taxes were designed to address colonial resistance to "internal taxation" like the Stamp Act, which had no connection to trade and was intended only to raise revenue. However, the colonials viewed the Townshend Acts as revenue-raising measures and refused to pay these taxes as well.

King George III

the king of England from 1760 to 1820, exercised a greater hand in the government of the American colonies than had many of his predecessors. Colonists were torn between loyalty to the king and resistance to acts carried out in his name. After he rejected the Olive Branch Petition, the colonists came to see him as a tyrant.

Samuel Adams

Massachusetts Revolutionary leader and propagandist who organized opposition to British policies after 1764; radical member of Sons of Liberty, worried that violence of group would discredit it; proposed united plea for repeal of Townshend Duties and another pan-colonial congress; circulated his own exaggerated version of events around colonies

Quebec Act 1774

Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.

First Continental Congress

convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. The congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system.

Hessians

German soldiers hired by George III to smash Colonial rebellion, proved good in mechanical sense but they were more concerned about money than duty.

Loyalists

American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence

George Washington

Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.

Thomas Paine

Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man

Paxton Boys

They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.

Writs of Assistance

legal document that enabled officers to search homes and warehouses for goods that might be smuggled

Admiralty Courts

British courts originally established to try cases involving smuggling or violations of the Navigation Acts which the British government sometimes used to try American criminals in the colonies. Trials in Admiralty Courts were heard by judges without a jury. Believed you were guilty until proven innocent.

Gaspee Affair

The colonists thought that there was a conspiracy against them. Seizing their opportunity to destroy the hated vessel, a group of colonists disguised as Native Americans ordered the British crew ashore and then set fire to the ship., Rhode Island colonists boarded the HMS Gaspee, a British ship, looted it, then burned and sank it in 1772.

Battle of Trenton

On Christmas day at night, Washington's soldiers began crossing the Delaware River. The next morning, they suprise attacked the British mercenaries which were Hessians. Captured 918 Hessians and only had 4 casualties.

General Cornwallis

1783 - 1805, British military and political leader. Was a member of Parliament and even opposed the tax measures that led to the American Revolution. Led British forces during the American Revolution. The British defeat culminated with Cornwallis's surrender at Yorktown. in 1781.

Circular Letter

A letter written in Boston and circulated through the colonies in February, 1768, which urged the colonies not to import goods taxed by the Townshend Acts. Boston, New York, and Philadelphia agreed to non-importation. It was followed by the Virginia Circular Letter in May, 1768. Parliament ordered all colonial legislatures which did not rescind the circular letters dissolved.

John Jay

United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829)

Articles of Confederation

this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage

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