AP Bio Chapters 1-5 and 8

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Biosphere

all environments on Earth that are inhabited by life.

Ecosystems

all living things in a particular area, along with all the nonliving components of the environment with which life interacts (soil, water, atmospheric gases, and light).

Communities

the entire array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem/the set of populations that inhabit a particular area.

Populations

all the individuals of a species living within the bounds of a specified area.

Organisms

individual living things.

Organs

a body part consisting of two or more tissues

Organ Systems

a team of organs that cooperate in a specific function.
ex. human digestive system-tounge, stomach, intestines

Tissues

groups of similar cells that perform a specific function in an organism (allow the organ to function).

Cells

life's fundamental unit of structure and function.

Organelles

small structures in the cytoplasm that do special jobs.
ex. chloroplasts

Molecules

is a chemical unit consisting of two or more small chemical units called atoms.

Producers

photosynthetic organisms (such as plants) that convert light energy to chemical energy.

Consumers

organisms (such as animal) that feed on producers and other consumers.

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

the substance of genes

Genes

the unit of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring.

Eukaryotic Cell

subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane-enclosedorganelles.
ex. protists

Prokaryotic Cell

DNA is not separated from the rest of the cell by the enclosure in a membrane-bounded nucleus.
ex. bacteria

Natural Selection

the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.

Qualitative data

often in the form of recorded descriptions.

Quantitative Data

often in the form of numerical measurements.

Theory

an explanation that is a broad in scope, generates new hypotheses, and is supported by a large body of evidence (broad).

Hypothesis

a tentative answer to a well framed question (narrow).

Element

a substance that can not be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions.

Compound

a substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio.
ex. sodium chloride (NaCl) (table salt)= sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) in a 1:1 ratio.

Trace Elements

those required by an organism in only minute quantities.

Atomic Number

number of protons.

Mass Number

number or protons plus neutrons.

Covalent Bonds

the sharing of a pair of valence electrons.

Protons

determine the element.

Double Covalent Bonds

the sharing of two pairs of valence electrons.

Electronegativity

the attraction of a particular kind of atom for the electrons of covalent bonds.

Non-polar Covalent Bond

a bond in which the electrons are shared equally.

Isotope

atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.

Ionic Bonds

formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another.

Ion

a charged atom.

Cation

an atom with a positive charge.

Anion

an atom with a negative charge.

Ionic Compounds

compounds formed by ionic bonds (salts).

Hydrogen Bonds

-froms when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atoms.
-very weak bonds; occurs when a hydrogen atom in one molecule is attracted to the electronegative atom in another molecule.

Van der Waals

Weak interactions that occur when atoms and molecules are very close together; based on the fact that because electrons are in constant motion, they may accumulate by chance in one part of the molecule or another, thus creating a charge for that instant.
ex. gecko walks up a wall (so numerous can support the gecko's body weight).

Polar Molecule

the opposite ends of the molecule have opposite charges.

Cohesion

hydrogen bonds collectively holding water together.

Adhesion

the clinging of one substance to another.

Surface Tension

a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid.

Moderation of Temperature

water moderates air temperature by absorbing heat from air that is warmer and releasing the stored heat air that is cooler. occurs because water can absorb or release a relatively large amount of heat with only a slight change in its own temperature.

Kinetic Energy

the energy of motion.

Heat

a measure of the total amount of kinetic energy.

Temperature

measures the intensity of heat due to the average kinetic energy of the molecules.

Specific Heat

the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1g of that substance to change its temperature by 1°C.

Heat of Vaporization

the quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1g to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state.

Evaporative Cooling

as a liquid evaporates, the surface area of the liquid that remains behind cools down. occurs because the "hottest" molecules, those with the greatest kinetic energy, are more likely to leave as gas.

Solution

a liquid that is a completely homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.

Solute

the substance that is dissolved.

Solvent

the dissolving agent of a solution.

Hydrophilic

any substance that has an affinity for water.

Hydrophobic

nonionic and non-polar substances that seem to repel water.

Colloid

a stable suspension of particles in a liquid.

Hydrogen Ion (H+)

is transferred-(the hydrogen atom leaves its electron behind)-when a hydrogen atom participating in a hydrogen bond between two water molecules shifts from one molecule to another. results in a Hydronium ion

Hydroxide Ion (OH-)

the water molecule that lost a proton.

Acid

a substance that increases the hydrogen ion in a solution.

Base

a substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.

Buffers

substances that minimize changes in the concentrations of H+ and OH-. works by accepting H+ from the solution when they are in excess and donating H+ to the solution when they have been depleted.

Acid Precipitation

snow, rain, or fog with a pH lower or more acidic that pH 5.6. caused primarily by the presence of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides-gaseous compounds that react with water in the air to form strong acids. major source is burring of fossil fuels.

Organic Compounds

complex molecules organized around skeletons of carbon atoms arranged in rings or chains; includes biomolecules molecules synthesized by living organisms.

Hydrocarbons

organic molecules consisting only of carbon and hydrogen.

Isomers

compounds that have the same number of atoms of the same elements but different structures and hence different properties.

Structural Isomer

differ in covalent arrangements of their atoms.

Geometric Isomers

differ in arrangement about a double bond.

Enantiomers

isomers that are mirror images of each other.

Hydroxyl

the monovalent group -OH in such compounds as bases and some acids and alcohols. polar-electronegative oxygen. attracts water molecules helping dissolve organic compounds.

Carbonyl

C=O
ketones-carbonyl group is within a carbon skeleton
aldehydes-carbonyl group is at the end of a carbon skeleton.

Carboxyl

O=C-OH
carboxyl acids-organic acids. source of H+. covalent bond between H and O is so polar H+ tend to dissociate reversibly.

Amino

-NH2
amines. act as a base. ionized 1+ under cellular conditions.

Sulfhydryl

-SH
thiols. two -SH can interact to help stabilize protein structure.

Phosphate

PO₄³⁻
organic phosphates. makes the molecule of which it is part of an anion. can transfer energy between organic molecules.

Macromolecule

A giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a condensation reaction. Polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are macromolecules.

Dehydration Reaction/Condensation Reaction

when monomers are connected by a reaction in which two molecules covalently bond together through loss of a water molecule.

Hydrolysis

disassembles polymers into monomers through the gain of a water molecule.

Carbohydrates

sugars and polymers of sugars.

Monosaccharides

simplest carbohydrates/singe sugars/simple sugars. generally have molecular formulas that are some multiple of CH20. nutrients for cells.

Disaccharides

two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage.

Polysaccharides

carbohydrates that are macromolecules. polymers composed of sugar building blocks.

Glycosidic Linkage

a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by dehydration reaction.

Trade Marks of Sugar

a carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group.

Phospholipids

has only two fatty acids attached to glycerol.

Fat

three fatty acids attached to a glycerol.

Steroids

lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings.

Cholesterol

a common component of animal cell membranes and is also the precursor from which other steroids are synthesized. many hormones (including sex hormones) are steroids produced from cholesterol.

Chitin

carbohydrate used by arthropods to build their exoskeletons.

Starch

a storage polysaccharide of plants consisting entirely of glucose monomers.

Cellulose

polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls.

Maltose

glucose + glucose

Sucrose

glucose + fructose

Lactose

glucose + galactose

Enzymatic Proteins

selective acceleration of chemical reactions.
ex. digestive enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis in food.

Structural Proteins

support
(strengthen and protect cells and tissues) ex. collagen strengthens animal tissue. keratin the protein of hair, horns, and other skin appendages.

Storage Proteins

Storage of amino acids.
ex. ovalbumin-protein of egg white-used as an amino acid source for the developing embryo. casein-protein for milk-major source of amino acids for baby mammals.

Transport Proteins

transport of other substances.
ex. hemoglobin-tranports oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body. other proteins transports molecules across cell membranes.

Hormonal Proteins

coordination of an organism's activities.
ex. insulin-hormoe secreted by the pancreas- helps regulate the concentration of sugar in the blood.

Receptor Proteins

response of cell to chemical stimuli.
ex. receptors built into the membrane of a nerve cell detect chemical signals released by other nerve cells.

Contractile and Motor Proteins

movement.
ex. actin and myosin-responsible for the movement of muscles. other proteins are responsible for the undulations of the organelles called cilia and flagella.

Defensive Proteins

protect against disease.
ex. antibodies combat bacteria and viruses.

Amino Acids

organic molecules possessing both carboxyl and amino groups.

Peptide Bond

the chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid through dehydration reaction.

Polypeptide

A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.

Primary Structure

The level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids.

Secondary Structure

The localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between peptide linkages.

Tertiary Structure

-Irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to interactions of side chains involved in hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges.
-The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain.

Quaternary Structure

The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.

Entropy

(thermodynamics) a thermodynamic quantity representing the amount of energy in a system that is no longer available for doing mechanical work
(chaos)

Enthalpy

(thermodynamics) a thermodynamic quantity equal to the internal energy of a system plus the product of its volume and pressure.

Activation Energy

the energy that an atomic system must acquire before a process (such as an emission or reaction) can occur.

Catabolic Reaction

breakdown of more complex substances into simpler ones with release of energy. exergonic.

Anabolic Reaction

synthesis of more complex substances from simpler ones. endergonic. delta G is negative. high in reactants low in products.

Endergonic Reaction

reactions that absorb energy; the products have more energy than the reactants.

Exergonic Reaction

A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy.

Cofactors

nonprotein enzyme helpers.

Coenzymes

organic cofactors.
ex. vitamins

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

three (negatively charged) phosphate groups, nitrogenous base, sugar ribose.
-one of the principal chemical compounds that living things use to store and release energy.

Phosphorylate

activation, addition of phosphate group that leads to activity.

Allosteric Enzymes

enzymes that have multiple binding sites and alternate between an active and an inactive form.

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