groups of people who have a complex and organized society within a culture.
The region stretched from the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers...has fertile soil and a curved shape..
area of flat land
area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers...It was one of the first civilizations
area of high, flat land
farmers built trenches and ditches that brought water from rivers to the fields
is a city that is an individual unit, complete with its own form of government and traditions.
an area on Earth with common physical features.
craftspeople, such as, potters and weavers
people who packed donkeys with goods like barley and cloth and set out on long journeys to get materials that they lacked.
What did the Mesopotamians build to help with the lack of water in the fields?
What happened when populations in southern Mesopatamia grew?
More villages developed and by 3500bc there were several new city states such as Uruk, Kish, Lagash, Nippur, Umma and Ur. Each had there own government.
What did Mesopotamians do because they lacked natural resources?
They learned to trade with the regions to get the wood, stone, copper and other raw materials they needed.
Where did the first civilization arise?
Mesopotamia- fertile crescent
How did the Mesopotamian farmers use the Tigres and Euphrates Rivers to solve the problem of low rainfall.
They build irrigation systems
The city state in the south of Mesopotamia
The city state in the north of Mesopotamia
The large Sumerian city-state. 500,000 people might have lived in Uruk by 2800bc. They created vast fields with irrigation.
series of stacked rectangular platforms that formed a huge pyramid-shaped structure. They believed they linked the heavens to the Earth
organized community with established rules and traditions.
worship many gods
professional writer, pressed a reed into a wet clay tablet, leaving wedge-shaped markings
the wedge shaped writing in the tablet
Legendary Sumerian king- Archaeologists uncovered literature...Epic of Gilgamesh
Akkadian ruler who armies thundered southward though Sumer.
a large territory- consisting of many different places all under control of a single ruler
Sargon's daughter, title of high priestess in the city-state of Ur.
a ruling family
Summerian king, founder of Ur, most successful dynasty. Built one of the largest ever ziggurat
Ur-Nammu's son under his rule farming, business, literature and the arts flourished.
What did the Sumerians contribute to later civilizations?
Cuneiform, ziggurates and the wheel. Sumerians used writing, religion and technology in their daily lives.
How were Sumerian religion and government connected?
Each city believed it was looked after by a particular god. Sumerians believed that the gods chose the kings. This is the idea of divine worship
What is divine worship
The right to rule was god-given.
How did the Sumerian writing system develop and change?
The Sumerians created a writing system to keep track f business dealings. The early examples were just pictures like fish...later they developed cuneiform...many neighboring people also adopted cuneiform