Was a Republican who believed that the future of the U.S. would lie in the hands of farmers. "Long Tom" was inaugurated to the presidency on March 4, 1801. While he was president, the Louisiana Purchase was made, Lewis and Clark were sent to explore the newly acquired land, the Barbary Pirate threat was silenced, and the Embargo Act was passed. While all of his presidential acts were not always successful, he always put the country ahead of himself. He had strong patriotism and loyalty to the U.S.
Sent to Paris in 1803 to buy New Orleans and as much land as possible to the east for a maximum of ten million dollars. He and Robert Livingston arranged the of all of Louisiana for fifteen million dollars. He later became James Madison's Secretary of State.
Explorer along with Merriwether Lewis sent out to explore the recently purchased Louisiana Territory. He served as the artist and cartographer (map maker). Their exploring lasted from 1804-1806. They traveled up the Missouri River, through the Rockies, and to the mouth of the Columbia River. This exploration bolstered America's claim to western lands as well as opening the west to Indian trade and further exploration.
Was the secretary of the treasury under Thomas Jefferson. He was called the "Watchdog of the Treasury," and proved to be as able as Alexander Hamilton. He agreed with Jefferson that a national debt was a bane rather than a blessing. Using strict controls of the economy, he succeeded in reducing the debt, and he balanced the budget.
Bought New Orleans and all the French territory west of the Mississippi River from Napoleon for 15 million dollars. He was only supposed to negotiate for a small part of New Orleans for 10 million so Jefferson was upset when he heard about his deal.
A pioneer who explored the Louisiana territory between 1805 - 1807. He explored Colorado, New Mexico, & Mississippi. He was a leader of the new land. He has set up the portal to allow people to migrate toward west. (A paragon - First example to move into the Louisiana territory).
Appointed by John Adams (1801) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court- was a Virginia Federalist who was disliked by the state's rights Jeffersonians. (Served 30 days under Federalist administration and 34 years under the Jeffersonians and their successors) The Federalists died out but he continued to hand down Federalist decisions. IMPORTANT ACT- Although he dismissed the Marbury suit ( 1801) to avoid direct political showdown, he said that part of the Judiciary Act of 1789, on which Marbury tried to base his appeal was unconstitutional.
Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I)
Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815. Developed Napoleonic Code, which forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs go to the most qualified. Napoleonic Wars were wars waged against France by other European countries. In these wars, he proved to be a great military leader and took over most of central Europe. The fight against the guerilla in Spain and 1812 French invasion of Russia marked turning points in his fortunes. His army was badly damaged. Then in 1813, the Sixth Coalition defeated his forces at Leipzig; the following year the Coalition invaded France, forced Napoleon into exile.
Was a running mate with Thomas Jefferson. They tied for the presidency. Jefferson won the run off. He killed Alexander Hamilton in a famous duel. He was tried and acquitted for treason involving a plan to separate the US and combine with Spain.
President Adams named him a justice of the peace for the District of Columbia. He sued James Madison when he learned his appointment would never take place. (this guy vs. Madison).
Was the fourth President of the United States (1809-1817) and is hailed as the "Father of the Constitution" for being the primary author of the United States Constitution and the author of the United States Bill of Rights. Believed power must be divided, both between federal and state governments (federalism), and within the federal government (checks and balances) to protect individual rights. Drafted first ten amendments to the Constitution and thus is known as the "Father of the Bill of Rights". As Jefferson's Secretary of State (1801-1809), Madison supervised the Louisiana Purchase, and helped organize the Republican Party (later called Democratic-Republican Party). As President, he led the nation into the War of 1812.
Was a Native American leader of the Shawnee and a large tribal confederacy that opposed the United States during Tecumseh's War and the War of 1812. Fought for Indian's right to keep their land and joined with British forces. During the War of 1812, Tecumseh and his confederacy allied with the British in Canada and helped in the capture of Fort Detroit. Even after British were defeated, Shawnee Confederacy fought on. He was killed in the Battle of the Thames. He became heroic figure in American Indian and Canadian history.
Skillfully led a group of angry ex-slaves against French troops in Santo Domingo. The French were unable to reconquer this valuable island and hence, had no use for Louisiana to serve as a granary for Santo Domingo. The inability of the French to regain possession of the island caused Napoleon to cede the Louisiana territory to the United States for 15 million dollars. Thus, his military vigor indirectly provoked Napoleon's decision to sell Louisiana to the Americans.
Was a strong supporter of the American Revolution, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, an ardent Federalist, and the only Supreme Court Justice ever to be impeached. A lawyer by profession, in 1796 he was appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court by president Washington. This was after he served as Chief Justice of the General Court of Maryland in 1791. In 1804, for alleged prejudice against the Jeffersonians in treason and sedition trials.
The expedition was one of the main explorations of the West. The area explored was: The Missouri River through the Rockie Mountains.
Was a planter, public speaker, and statesman who represented Kentucky in both the Senate and the House of Representatives, where he served as Speaker. Was leader of War Hawks. Favored war with Britain and played a significant role in leading the nation to war in 1812. He was the foremost proponent of the American System, fighting for an increase in tariffs to foster industry in the United States, the use of federal funding to build and maintain infrastructure, and a strong national bank.
John Quincy Adams
Was the sixth President of the United States (1825-1829). Before that, he served as an American diplomat, Senator, and Congressional representative. He was a member of the Federalist, Democratic-Republican, and National Republican parties. Was the son of former President by same name. As a diplomat, he was important in negotiating many international treaties, like the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812. As Secretary of State, he negotiated with England America's northern border with Canada, negotiated with Spain the annexation of Florida, and developed the Monroe Doctrine. Historians agree he was one of the greatest diplomats and secretaries of state in American history. Better diplomat/secretary of state than he was president later.
Is like the "spoils system." When an elected official fills appointed positions with friends that helped him/her get elected, it is considered this. Thomas Jefferson did not change many of the appointed positions in the government when he was elected in 1801.
Until 1803, the case of Marbury vs. Madison took place this year, there was controversy over who had the final say in determining the meaning of the Constitution, whether loose or strict interpretation should be used and who would decide. Jefferson tried to give the rights to the states in the Kentucky resolutions, but his cousin, John Marshall of the Supreme Court, proposed this, which gave the Supreme Court the power to decide if a law is or is not constitutional. This was accepted as a result of the famous case of Marbury vs. Madison.
Is to accuse a public official of misconduct in office. The Jeffersonians were angry about a ruling made by Chief Justice John Marshall. The House of Representatives attempted to impeach the unpopular Supreme Court Justice, Samuel Chase. Although there were enough votes in the House of Representatives, the Senate did not have enough. Since this attempt in 1804, there has been no serious attempt to impeach members of the Supreme Court.
The forcible enlistment of soldiers. This was a rude form of conscription that the British have employed for over four hundred years. At this time the London authorities claimed the right to impress only British subjects on their own soil, harbor, or merchant ships. However, many Americans were mistaken for Englishmen and between 1808 and 1811 alone some six thousand United States citizens were impressed by the "piratical man-stealers" of England. This was one of the major causes of the war of 1812.
The English navy stole American sailors from 1806 until 1811 angering Jefferson and the country. Jefferson, however, did not wish to engage in war with England because of the countries weak navy and army. So he came up with the idea of using this to force Britain to come to Jefferson, and agree to his terms. He came up with the Embargo Act which cut off all trade with England and everyone else. Jefferson hoped this would force the English to come to his terms and stop stealing American sailors. This, however, did not work and greatly hurt American trade.
Macon's Bill no. 2
Became law in the United States on May 1, 1810. Was intended to motivate Britain and France to stop seizing American vessels during the Napoleonic Wars. Stated that if either France or Britain would cease attacks on US ships, then the US would stop trading with the other. Napoleon of France lied and said France would stop, but didn't, so as President Madison soon realized, the law proved to be useless.
is a term originally used to describe members of the Twelfth Congress of the United States who advocated waging war against the British in the War of 1812, largely due to their attacks on US ships. They were Democratic-Republicans. Primary leader of war hawks was Henry Clay.
judiciary act of 1789
The act organized the Supreme Court, with a chief justice and 5 associates , as well as federal district and circuit courts. Also established the office of attorney general. John Jay was first chief justice.
Battle of Austerlitz
Also called the Battle of the Three Emperors. Took place in Austria in 1805. Napoleon (of France) crushed combined Austrian and Russian armies. France and Britain were now the most powerful, and were enemies.
Judiciary act of 1801
Was passed by the Federalist congress where the old capital was located. It was one of the last laws passed by the federalist congress. This law allowed the president, then President Adams, would stay up until midnight signing in new federal judges across the nation. It allowed the Federalists to still maintain power in the nation after they were a minority party in congress. This act brought bitterness between the two parties. These judges that were passed during the last day of President Adams were called "midnight Judges".
Orders in Council
Was a law passed by the English Parliament in 1793. It was when the British were fighting the French. The British closed off all port vessels that France went through so they couldn't get supplies. American ships were seized also and Americans were impressed into the British navy. This lead to the War of 1812.
"Revolution of 1800"
Nickname for the United States Presidential election of 1800 in which Thomas Jefferson defeated incumbent President John Adams. Was the start of a generation of Democratic-Republican Party rule and the eventual demise of the Federalist Party in the First Party System. One with most electoral votes was supposed to be President, and one with second most was supposed to be Vice-President, but Presidential candidate Thomas Jefferson and Vice-Presidential candidate Aaron Burr tied. After months of internal bickering, the House of Representatives finally broke the tie and elected Jefferson.
A nick name given to group of judges that was appointed by John Adams the night before he left office. He appointed them to go to the federal courts to have a long term federalist influence, because judges serve for life instead of limited terms
An incident that happened on June 22, 1807. The Chesapeake, a US frigate, was boarded by a British ship, the Leopard. The Chesapeake was not fully armed. The British seized four alleged deserters (the commander of the Chesapeake was later court marshaled for not taking any action). This is the most famous example of impressment, in which the British seized American sailors and forced them to serve on British ships. Impressment was one of the major factors leading to the War of 1812.
Marbury vs Madison
Sec. of State James Madison held up one of John Adams' "Midnight Judges" appointments. The appointment was for a Justice of the Peace position for William Marbury. Marbury sued. Fellow Hamiltonian and Chief Justice John Marshall dismissed Marbury's suit, avoiding a political showdown and magnifying the power of the Court. This case cleared up controversy over who had final say in interpreting the Constitution: the states did not, the Supreme Court did. This is judicial review.
Was a law passed by Congress forbidding all exportation of goods from the United States. Britain and France had been continuously harassing the U.S. and seizing U.S. ship's and men. The U.S. was not prepared to fight in a war, so Pres. Jefferson hoped to weaken Britain and France by stopping trade. This act ended up hurting our economy more than theirs. It was repealed in 1809. It helped to revive the Federalists. It caused New England's industry to grow. It eventually led to the War of 1812.
Louisiana Purchase Treaty
In 1803 Thomas Jefferson purchased 828,000 square miles of land for 15 million dollars from Napoleon the leader of France. The land mass stretched from the Gulf of Mexico all the to Rocky Mountains and Canada. The purchase of this land sprouted national pride and ensured expansion.
Formally reopened trade with all nations except England and France on March 1, 1809. A replacement of the Embargo Act. Made by the Republican Congress in an attempt to make England and France stop harassing the American ships and recognize the neutrality of America.
The term used to describe the United States Navy's fleet of small gunboats, leading up to and during the War of 1812; most were part of the New Orleans Squadron.