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Pages 4-27

How did geography shape the development of regional cultures in North America before 1492?

- Determines what crops can be grown
- Had to work with environment
- Incas: growing potatoes in the Andes mountains
made terraces of potato farming places as an irrigation system
- Inuits: living way up north, and used natural environment to hunt and fish
- Plains Indians: Nomadic, and ways of life is based upon following the buffalo
--made tipis out of the buffalo skin
--ate buffalo
- Eastern Woodland Indians: Very agricultural, all farmers, cultivated corn
- Native americans were very adapted to environment, because if they weren't, then they would die
---big incentive

What was life like for Native Americans before European arrival in 1492?

Generalizations of Native American Societal Life Before 1492:
- Religion was primitive; large component of their lives
- Burial practices, placing valuables in grave, all very spiritual people
- Mesoamerican cultures: violent religion in which they required human sacrifices
- Aztecs were the worst
- Animistic religion
Complex Trade Network
- exchanged material goods, ideas, marriage partners, religious beliefs
- trade corn with nomadic people for tools/flint
- Cahokia: very large place of trade and flourished through trade

Architecture
- Advanced buildings, irrigation systems, hohokams
Maya, Aztec, Incas

What was the impact of the development of agriculture?

Agricultural Revolution
- women usually were in charge of farming while as some times men were
- the surplus of food production helped stabilize the population, which then led to bigger villages, which then resulted in empires
- women may have figured out save seeds, which cultivated the widespread agricultural movement
corn, beans, maize, and other crops
- You can produce a lot of corn with little effort as there are many kernels in each ear of corn, allowing it to become widespread
- constant food source
- used for trade
- permanent settlement
- specialization in jobs
-- merchants
--traders
--tool-makers
--priests
--government officials

Moctezuma

Aztec emperor defeated and killed by the Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortes.

Paleo-Indian

Earliest inhabitants of North America; nomadic, used large, heavy spears & points. They had no settlements, pottery, or rituals indicating a belief system. Little gathering of food stuffs or living off the land, nutrition came primarily from meat.

Archaic period

after the dark ages; farming reestablished; used iron; adoption of alphabet; revival of some trade

Culture areas

Geographical regions inhabited by people who shared similar basic patterns of survival and social organization

Nomads

People with no permanent home; move from place to place in search of food,

Hunter-gatherers

People who hunt animals and gather wild plants, seeds, fruits, and nuts to survive

Mesoamerica

Early civilization from Mexico to Central America and it was based on agriculture and the cultivation of corn and food production.

Mayans

Advanced writing and calendrical system, influenced much of Mesoamerica through trade and conquest

Aztecs

A warrior people who dominated the Valley of MExico from 1100-1521

Tenochtitlan

Aztec capital

Anasazis

These mesoamerican peoples created an irrigation system, but they lived in the four corners region where they built homes on the side of cliffs out of stone that were call Adobes.

Mesa Verde

large cliff dwelling in Colorado, held several thousand people, dwellings were easy to defend, offered protection-provided a safe place for Anasazi

Vikings

Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavia

Plains Indians

This group of Indians posed a serious threat to western settlers because, unlike the Eastern Indians from early colonial days, the Plains Indians possessed rifles and horses.

Mound-builders

Native American civilizations of the eastern region of North America that created distinctive earthen works that served as elaborate burial places

Cahokia

One of the largest urban centers created by Mississippian peoples. Linked by trade to dozens of villages in the Midwestern region.

What was life like for the West Africans before 1492?

Pg 9 in Atlas: Large trade networks flourished
--- gold
--- slaves
--- leather
--- Trade took place through camel, very sophisticated trade network
--- sometimes traveled by river, usually the Niger river
--- traded with Arabs and India
Early West African Empires also successfully flourished
---Ghana, Mali, Songhai
---empires were very successful
Africans were doing fine on their own before going to the Americas
---wealth based on gold
Empires were farming, classified women as helpers to the men through farming, and not hierarchical
Unlike Europeans who had a hierarchical relationship between men and women
Relied heavily upon trade through the use of their large trade networks
---Had metal workers
---sophisticated skill, very artistic
Religious beliefs
---very spiritual
---funerals and ancestors were important and elaborate
---rituals focused on agricultural fertility
Before 1492, West Africans were doing fine
they had empires
they were thriving economically through trade
had advanced religious beliefs

Songhai Empire

located in western Africa. From the early 15th to the late 16th century, Songhai was one of the largest African empires in history. Controlled trade across the Sahara.

Timbuktu

Famous for it's gold trade, an important center of trade and government, and served as the seat of the powerful Songhai Empire

Ghana

The first West African kingdom based on the gold and salt trade

Mali

Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade.

Benin

a kingdom of the West African rain forest

Asante

African kingdom on the Gold Coast that expanded rapidly after 1680. Asante participated in the Atlantic economy, trading gold, slaves, and ivory. It resisted British imperial ambitions for a quarter century before being absorbed into Britain.

Slave Trade

The business of capturing, transporting, and selling people as slaves

What was the situation in Europe on the eve of exploration?

- Much turmoil
- Hundred Years' War: 1337-1453
fought between England and France over english presence in France
a political struggle
Stability in Europe substantially decreased, unstable situation
Many people were killed
Protestant Reformation: 1517
Dominant church at the time was the Catholic Church
Martin Luther and Calvin attacked the Catholic Church
believed that everyone was predestined
Caused a lot of commotion
The Black Plague: 1351
Europe was unsanitary
killed 1/3 of all Europeans
created gargantuan instability
caused a worker shortage
political disputes
Overall, much commotion and instability within a couple hundred of years
All very impacting

Why did the princes support voyages of exploration?

Rise in modern nation state
people living in the same area in which kings consolidated power
Kings consolidated power in Spain, Portugal, France, Britain
taxed people
use it to fund exploration, the army to beat up on other people
giving merchants a good deal in compensation for helping out
Wanted to sponsor the explorations so that they could create new lands and empires under their rule
Political angle: wanted to spread religion
Economical angle: wanted to become wealthy
Find trade routes in Asia
Specifically in the Indies:
Silk
Gems
spices:
made unpleasant smells and foods better
exotic goods that Europe had not been exposed to
Long, strenuous trip from Europe to Asia
Very expensive
Had to have enough supplies and resources to last them the trip
Religious quarrels could perhaps outbreak
Every time one went to a different area, one has to pay a toll
Didn't have the money to pay for the goods
Ottoman Empire 1453 controls certain areas that prevents Europeans from reaching Indies
Charged them tolls to pass through, or not even let them through
People were afraid the trade roots would be cut off-risky enterprise
-Trade by Boat:
Portuguese: By boat, you could bypass the difficulties of passing through on land, and more profit
taking out twenty middlemen by going around Africa: Went East
1498 this was successful
Spanish: they were going to go straight to Indies as they didn't know America existed: Went West
originally thought they landed in the east Indies in 1492
called the people indians
Pizarro: 1532 took conquest of the Incan Empire
Cortes: 1519 took conquest of the Aztec Empire
treasures in the Incan and Aztec empires fueled Spain's quest for gold
Spain became content with being in America
De Soto: 1539, he was too searching for gold
Spain interested in Gold, and not so much in anything else

Black Death

the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe

Hundred Years War

Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.

Renaissance "rebirth"

reconfiguring of the constructed way we experience the world in order to reconnect w/it, the adaptation of our cultural lenses to conform to our changing vision, moments when we pull out of a particular story long enough to consider the way in which it is being told

hierarchical

in order of rank or authority

patriarchal

relating to a society in which men hold the greatest legal and moral authority

reconquista

The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.

Catholic church

any of several churches claiming to have maintained historical continuity with the original Christian Church

Martin Luther

German monk and leader of the Protestant Reformation

Protestant Reformation

a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches

John Calvin

religious reformer who believed in predestination and a strict sense of morality for society

predestination

the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power

What were the biological consequences of contact between the Europeans and Native Americans?

Disease: smallpox, measles, malaria, flu
Native Americans had no immunity
90% of Native Americans died

spice trade

The trade of spices from Asia and India to Italian and Muslim merchants who would then trade it to Europeans

Prince Henry of Portugal

Established a school that taught sailing, geography, mapmaking, and astronomy. 1420, he became the head of the crusading order of the christ. revenue sponsored voyages along the african coast

caravel

Ship developed by Portuguese mariners which could sail more closely into the wind

astrolabe

an instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars and planets

magnetic compass

compass based on an indicator (as a magnetic needle) that points to the magnetic north

Christopher Columbus

1451-1506, an Italian man hired by the Spanish Royalty, Ferdinand and Isabella, to find a shorter route to the West Indies

Ferdinand and Isabella

The king and queen of Spain who gave Columbus the funds that he needed to find a route to Asia.

conquistadores

Spanish conquerors, established themselves as imperial rulers throughout America

Cortes

Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)

Pizarro

Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)

Cabeza de Vaca

1539, hired by De Soto to serve as a guide, he attempted to lead an expedition from Florida to the Mississippi River

Coronado

Explored the Southwest, including the Grand Canyon

Las Casas

A priest who spoke out against the mistreatment of native peoples under the care of the church. He persuaded Spain to pass laws in 1542 saying that native peoples must be paid for their work.

Columbian Exchange

The transatlantic exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and ideas that occurred after the first European contact with the Americas

Why did early French and English efforts at colonization falter?

Britain: Church of England vs. Catholics
- does not help with unity, and making big decisions about going to the New World
France:
- Both had instability with money, support, unity, and stability
- could not commit to a full scale colonial push

What did Spain gain from its colonies in the New World? What impact did this have on Spain?

Gold and Silver

How did religion affect European colonization?

Spain: Catholic
England: Protestant
France: Catholic
Dutch: Protestant
- Motives for coming to the New World
- Religious Motivation: A new land to convert
- Political: Wanted their own land and money
if you could get colonies, you could get gold and silver and other profits such as gaining land

What was the situation in the Americas in 1600?

European rivalry in Americas
- Spanish, England, France, Dutch, Portugal
- Portuguese get Brazil out of treaty
Aztec and Incan empires collapsed
African slaves brought to the Caribbean, Mexico, and Brazil and are subject to forced labor
Only Spain had established North American colonies
- Spain is top dog
European realization of the New World
- Hopeful for profits
- trying to transplant their ideas and ways of doing things into the New World
Virulent epidemics
- Native americans subject to bad epidemics
Separate worlds have started to come together
- Columbian Exchange: ideas, material goods pg 19 in Atlas
- plants and animals
-beans, corn, chocolate, tobacco, etc.
- provided new flavors
- more varied diets
- improved health to both sides of the Atlantic
Diseases caused millions of people to die
-Tremendously different

Treaty of Tordesillas

Set the Line of distinction in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas

Cartier

French explorer who explored the St. Lawrence river and laid claim to the region for France (1491-1557)

Cabot

Italian explorer who led the English expedition in 1497 that discovered the mainland of North America and explored the coast from Nova Scotia to Newfoundland (ca. 1450-1498)

Northwest Passage

a water route between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans along the northern coast of North America

Sir Walter Raleigh

1618 English courtier, navigator, colonizer, and writer. A favorite of Elizabeth I, he introduced tobacco and the potato to Europe. Convicted of treason by James I, he was released for another expedition to Guiana and executed after its failure. Planted the Roanoke Colony.

Roanoke Island

English colony that Raleigh planted on an island off North Carolina in 1585; the colonists who did not return to England disappeared without a trace in 1590

Virginia Dare

first English child born in America

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