BIO 213 Test 1 Part 2

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Sexual reproduction relies on what type of cell division?

meiosis

Define meiosis

A type of cell division in which the daughter cell has half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell

Asexual reproduction relies on what type of cell division?

mitosis

Define mitosis

A type of cell division in which the daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell

The term for separate sexes. These types of organisms have male and females as separate beings.

dioecious

The term for both sexes being present in one organism

monoecious

What is another term for monoecious?

hermaphrodite

Define synchronous hermaphroditism

the condition in which both sexes are functional at the same time

Define asynchronous hermaphroditism

the condition in which both sexes are not functional at the same time

Define protogyny

A type of asynchronous hermaphroditism in which the organism functions first as a female and then as a male

Define protandry

A type of asynchronous hermaphroditism in which the organism functions first as a male and then as a female

What is the benefit of asynchronous hermaphroditism?

Prevents self-fertilization which leads to greater genetic diversity of the population

Define heterotroph

an organism that takes in nutrients from an external source

Define autotroph

an organism that produce their own nutrients via photosynthesis or chemosynthesis

Define chemosynthesis

the process by which some organisms produce their food through chemical mechanisms that do not require light

Define saprotroph

an organism that takes in nutrients from decaying organic matter

Define symbiosis

A relationship in which members of different species live in close contact with each other and at least one of them benefits from the relationship

Define commensalism

a type of symbiosis in which one of the organisms benefits and the other is not affected

Give an example of commensalism

- tiny animals benefit from living among the gills of crayfish (transportation, protection, food scraps)

- cattle birds benefit from the natural movement of cattle that stirs up insects

- little worms benefit from living in the ureters of frogs and toads (passing nutrients, protection)

Define mutualism

a type of symbiosis in which both of the organisms benefit

Give an example of mutualism

clown fish live among sea anemones. Fish are protected by its tentacles, the sea anemone receives "food scraps"

Define parasitism

a type of symbiosis in which one of the organisms is benefitted and the other is harmed

Define vector

an animal that transports a parasite to a new host

Describe the parasite life cycle

larva > immature form > adult form.

Each stage may require a different host species or group of related hosts.

Define intermediate host

the host that the larval form of parasites live in, allows for development of immature form

Define definitive host

the host that the adult form of parasite lives in

Define parasitoidism

A type of symbiosis in which one of the organisms is benefitted and the other is eventually killed

Give an example of parasitoidism

Tiny wasps are parasitioids that lay their eggs on other insects so that their larvae can feed

Define homologous

having a common origin in the embryo

Define analogous

having a similar function

Define asymmetry

a condition in which an organism has uneveven distribution of components

What type of organisms are asymmetrical?

sponges

Define symmetry

a condition in which an organism has even distribution of components

Define radial symmetry

components are arranged around the central, oral-aboral axis

Define bilateral symmetry

components are evenly distributed along the longitudinal axis

Define cephalization

the concentration of nervous and sensory tissues at the anterior end of the animal

What type of organisms have bilateral symmetry?

most in k. Animalia

Define biradial symmetry

components are arranged in an oval configuration around the oral-aboral axis

What type of organisms have biradial symmetry?

sea anemones

Describe the hydrostatic skeleton

An skeleton based on water which is noncompressible. Muscles can exert force to cause movement of solution which results in locomotion.

What type of organisms have hydrostatic skeletons?

earthworms

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