Ancient Middle East

Created by ckuker 

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10 Commandments

Will need to write out 5 of the 10
1 -YOU SHALL HAVE NO OTHER "GODS" BEFORE ME
2 -YOU SHALL NOT MAKE FOR YOURSELF AN IDOL
3 -YOU SHALL NOT TAKE THE NAME OF GOD IN VAIN
4 -REMEMBER THE SABBATH DAY TO KEEP IT HOLY
5 -HONOR YOUR FATHER AND YOUR MOTHER
6 -YOU SHALL NOT MURDER
7 -YOU SHALL NOT COMMIT ADULTERY
8 -YOU SHALL NOT STEAL
9 -YOU SHALL NOT LIE
10 -YOU SHALL NOT COVET

Solomon

Known for his wisdom, allegedly met the Queen of Sheba, Built the 1st temple to house the Ark of the Covenant, had 700 wives which caused him to turn away from God

David

Established Jerusalem as a capital and killed the Philistine Goliath

Saul

1st king of a united kingdom, tried to kill David because he was jealous of him

Torah

most holy of sacred Jewish writings, first 5 books of the Old Testament

Tanakh

Jewish Bible

Ethical monotheism

Belief that Jews must show obedience to God by obeying the law (10 Commandments) and atoning for sins

Bar Mitzvah

the coming of age ceremony for 13 year old Jewish boys

Kosher

dietary laws and precise methods for slaughter and food preparation

Rosh Hashanah

On this day God judges all his people and decides their fate in the next year

Yom Kippur

most important holiday - last opportunity to change God's judgement of ones deeds in the previous year

Hanukkah

includes the ritual of lighting the candles

Passover

Commemorates the Exodus

Issac

His father was willing to sacrifice him to prove his loyalty to God

Jacob

His 12 sons established the 12 Tribes of Israel

Abraham

considered to be the father of Judaism

Moses

Led the Hebrew slaves out of Israel and received the 10 Commandments on Mount Sinai

Hammurabi's Code

punishment was based on status, established the state as the authority and many laws dealt with property, was a public record of all existing laws

The Temple Mount

believed to be the place where Abraham was willing to sacrifice his son and the 1st temple was built

The Exodus

escape of the enslaved Hebrews from Egypt

monotheistic

the worship of one God, early Hebrews

"Crossroads of the World"

referred to the Fertile Crescent because it was a route connecting Asia, Europe and Africa, which allowed for the constant exchange of ideas, area extended from persian Gulf to the Red Sea

city-states

political unit made up of a city and surrounding lands

empire

the uniting of several peoples/nations under one ruler

ziggurats

baked brick temples

cultural diffusion

process by which the ideas, beliefs and products of one people are shared and accepted by another people

cuneiform

system of writing in which symbols are carved with a stylus into clay tablets

Anatolia

occupied by the Hittites, in Asia Minor

Carthage

Phoenician port city in North Africa

Sardis

Lydian capital

Nineveh

capital of Assyrian Empire

Palestine

known as Canaan or the Kingdom of Israel, homeland of the Hebrews

Tyre/Sidon

powerful city-state established by the sea faring merchants

Jerusalem

city that King David made into a great capital

Ur

Sumerian city-state

Susa

important city state to the Persians

Mesopotamia

area known as the "land between two rivers"

Sargon

established the first empire in recorded history

Zoroaster

taught that people had to choose between food and evil

Cyrus

known for his tolerance in the Persian Empire

Nebuchadnezzar

a strong leader of the Chaldeans

Phoenicians

purple dye, lumber from the Lebanon Mts. was an important resource, helped develop the modern alphabet

Sumerians

ruled by priest-kings, a math system based on 60, built ziggurats, used cuneiform, first to use and develop the arch, Gilgamesh was a famous king

Akkadians

first empire in recorded history, their language became the first international language in the FC

Assyrians

adopted gods of conquered peoples, first empire to replace priest kings with military leaders, first to use cavalry and empire included the entire FC and the Nile, followed a policy of "deport and depopulate" with conquered people, built one of the world's first libraries

Persians

built the Royal Road, created a postal system, followed a policy of tolerance, used the kings "eyes and ears" to keep peace in the kingdom, established a system of standard measures and had the largest empire and divided it into satraps

Babylonians

located mainly in the southern part of the FC, gave women some rights,

Chaldeans

known for their advancements in math and astronomy and created on of the wonders of the ancient world

Hittites

located in Asia Minor, frist to smelt iron and create iron weapons and war chariots, had a more forgiving law code

Lydians

Created the first system of coined money

flooding in the FC

was unpredictable and deposited silt which the farmers depended on

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