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The Road to Revolution American Paegent 12th Edition

John Hancock

Boston smuggler and prominent leader of the colonial resistance, who served as president of the Second Continental Congress.

Lord North

Tory prime minister and pliant aide to George III from 1770 to 1782. North's ineffective leadership and
dogged insistence on colonial subordination contributed to theAmerican Revolution.

George Grenville

British prime minister who fueled tensions between Britain and her North American colonies through
his strict enforcement of navigation laws and his support for theSugar and Stamp Acts.

Samuel Adams

Boston revolutionary who organized Massachusetts' committees of correspondence to help sustain opposition to Britishpolicies.

Charles Townshend

("Champagne Charley") (1725-1767): British
prime minister whose ill-conceived duties on the colonies, the
Townshend Acts, sparked fierce protests in the colonies and escalated
the imperial conflict.

John Adams

At the meeting in Philadelphia in 1775 he played an important role in swaying his colleagues to a revolutionary course.

Crispus Attucks

Runaway slave and leader of the
Boston protests that resulted in the "Boston Massacre," in which
Attucks was first to die.

Marquis de Lafayette

French nobleman who served
as major general in the colonial army during the American
Revolution and aided the newly-in de pen dent colonies in securing
French support.

King George III

British monarch during the run-up to the American Revolution, George III contributed to the imperial crisis with his dogged insistence on asserting Britain's power over her colonial possessions.

Baron von Steuben

German-born inspector generalof the Continental army, who helped train the novice colonial militiain the art of warfare.

mercantilism

The basic economic and political theory by which 17th & 18th century European powers governed their overseas colonies

"No taxation without representation"

cry used by the colonists to protest the Stamp Act of 1765. The colonists declared they had no one representing them in Parliament, so Parliament had no right to tax them.

nonimportation agreements

widespread adoption in the colonies not to use any British goods. They were a promising stride toward union; they spontaneoulsy united the American people for the first time in common action

"royal veto"

used when legislation passed by the colonial assemblies conflicted with British regulations, resented by the colonists, used sparingly

internal taxation

taxed goods with in the colonies and acted much like a sales tax, The Stamp Act is an example of an internal tax. colonists were opposed to internal taxes.

external taxation

taxes applied to imports into the colonies. The merchant importing the good paid the tax, Sugar Act of 1764 is an example of an external tax. Colonists were more accepting of external taxation and more opposed to internal taxation

"virtual" representation

Theory that claimed that every member of Parliament represented all British subjects, even those Americans in the colonies who had never voted for a member of the London Parliament.

boycott

to abstain from using, buying, or dealing with products from Britain

Board of Trade

An English legislative body, based in London, that was created for the governing and economic controling of the American colonies. It kept the the colonies functioning under the mercantilistic system.

Sons of Liberty

Organization established in 1765 to resist the Samp Act. After the repeal of the Act they combined with the Daughters of Liberty and remained active in resistance movements.

Quebec Act

provisions: established Roman Catholicism as the official religion of Quebec, set up a government without a representative assembly, and extended Quebec's boundary to the Ohio River. angered many colonists, feared for their rights

Navigation Acts

Between late the late 1600s and early 1700s, the British passed a series of laws to put pressure on the colonists to stay with in the mercantilist system. set up admiralty courts to try violators - the Malasses Act of 1733 and enumerated goods are examples of Navigation Acts

Declaratory Acts

Law that stated Parliament had the right "to bind" the colonies "in all cases whatsoever." It is important in history because it stopped the violence and rebellions against the tax on stamps. It restarted trade with Britain, which had temporarily stopped as a difeant reaction to the Stamp Act.

First Continental Congress

America's response to the Intolerable Acts; considered ways of redressing colonial grievances, it called for a boycott of English goods

Sugar Act

placed duties on foreign sugar. Its' chief purpose was to raise money for the crown. It strengthened the Navigation Acts and established Admiralty courts

Townshend Acts

revenue tax on tea, glass, and paper use to pay crown official in the colonies who would lose the "power of the purse" provided for writs of assisstance to search for smugglers, suspended New York's assembly for defiance of the Quartering Act.

Quartering Act

This act required the colonists to provide food and living quarters for British soldiers sttioned in the colonies

Boston Massacre

Citizens of Boston resented the British troops whoi had been quartered there to protect customs official from being attacked by the Sons of Liberty. During one of the harassments of the soldiers shot were fired killing 5. Would be used as propaganda by colonists later.

The Association

A document produced by the Continental Congress in 1775 that called for a complete boycott of British goods.

Stamp Act

tax to raise funds to support British troops in the colonies, it was a direct tax which colonists resented

committees of correspondence

A principal device for spreading news from colony to colony about British activities - started by Samuel Adams - kept ill will against British going

Hessians

German mercanaries hired by King George III to keep order in the colonies - inflamed the colonist who feared them

admiralty courts

new courts established by the British to try smugglers in which had not juries - fueled animosity among the colonists

Boston Tea Pary

East India Co. tea cargo was dumped in the Boston harbor to protest the tea tax

Loyalists

Colonials loyal to the king during the American Revolution

Stamp Act Congress

had little effect but broke barriers and helped toward colonial unity

Intolerable Acts

passed after the Boston Tea Party, designed to chastise Boston in particular, closed the port until damages were paid, brought colonies together to aid Boston

"Continental"

colonial paper money

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