Chapter 10: the muscular system

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The muscle that mey extend and laterally rotate the arm

Deltoid

Muscle that is the
Prime mover to protract and hold the scapula against the chest wall; rotates scapula so that its inferior angle moves laterally and upward.

Serratus anterior

A muscle that has its origin on the manubrium of the sternum and medial portion of the clavicle, and its insertion in the mastoid process of the temporal bone

sternocleidomastoid

Muscle that opposes and reverses the action of another muscle

anatagonist

muscle that stabilizes the orgin of another muscle

fixator

Muscle that is primarily responsible
for bringing about a particular movement.

antagonist

Muscle that aids another by
promoting the same movement.

synergist

Scissors demonstrate which type of lever?

A)

a first-class lever
B)

a second-class lever
C)

a third-class lever
D)

a fourth-class lever

A) first-class lever

What muscle is responsible for keeping your toes from dragging when walking?

A)

extensor digitorum
B)

tibialis anterior
C)

extensor hallicus longus
D)

fibularis tertius

D) fibularis tertius

What is the major factor controlling the manner in which levers work?

A)

the structural characteristics of the muscles of the person using the lever
B)

the weight of the load
C)

the direction the load is being moved
D)

the difference in the positioning of the effort, load, and fulcrum

D) the difference in the positioning of the effort, load, and fulcrum

With regard to muscle fiber arrangement in a pennate muscle ________.

A)

the fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of a muscle
B)

the fascicular pattern is circular
C)

the fascicles form a triangle
D)

the fascicles are in a fusiform arrangement

A) the fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of a muscle

What primarily determines the power of a muscle?

A)

the length
B)

the shape
C)

the number of neurons innervating it
D)

the total number of muscle cells available for contraction

D) the total number of muscle cells available for contraction

A muscle that provides the major force for producing a specific movement is called ________.

A)

a synergist
B)

an agonist
C)

an antagonist
D)

a fixator

B) agaonist

When the term biceps, triceps, or quadriceps forms part of a muscleʹs name, you can assume that ________.

A)

the muscle has two, three, or four origins, respectively
B)

the muscle is able to change direction twice, three times, or four times faster than other muscles, respectively
C)

the muscle has two, three, or four functions, respectively
D)

the muscle has two, three, or four insertions, respectively

A) the muscle has two, three, or four orgin respectivally

Which of the following statements is true regarding the total number of skeletal muscles in the human body?

A)

There are approximately the same number of muscles as bones: 206.

B)

There are approximately 350 muscles in the body.

C)

There are over 600 muscles in the body.

D)

If one considers the very tiny, insignificant muscles, there are over 1000 muscles in the body.

C) there are over 600 muscles in the body

The names of muscles often indicate the action of the muscle. When the term levator is part of the descriptive term for a muscleʹs action, this means that ________.

A)

the muscle flexes and rotates a region
B)

the muscle is a fixator and stabilizes a bone or joint
C)

the muscle elevates and/or adducts a region
D)

the muscle functions as a synergist

C) the muscle elevates and/or adducts a region

The suprahyoid muscles ________.

A)

depress the larynx and hyoid bone if the mandible is fixed
B)

are a group of muscles that lie superior to the hyoid bone and help form the floor of the oral cavity
C)

move the pharynx superiorly during swallowing
D)

are often called strap muscles

B) are a group of muscles that lie superior to the hyoid bone and help form the floor of the oral cavity

The supraspinatus is named for its location on the posterior aspect of the scapula above the spine. What is its action?

A)

to help hold the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity and rotate the humerus laterally
B)

to stabilize the shoulder joint and help prevent downward location of the humerus and to assist in abduction
C)

to extend and medially rotate the humerus and to act as a synergist of the latissimus dorsi
D)

to flex and adduct the humerus and to act as a synergist of the pectoralis major

B) to stabilize the shoulder joint and help prevent downward location of the humerus and to assist in abduction

The extensor carpi radialis brevis ________.

A)

extends and abducts the wrist and is short
B)

extends and adducts the wrist and has a small tendon
C)

supinates the forearm and is a superficial muscle
D)

extends the thumb and is a deep muscle

A) extends and abducts the wrist and is short

The muscles that are found at openings of the body are collectively called ________.

A)

convergent muscles
B)

circular muscles
C)

parallel muscles
D)

divergent muscles

B) circular muscles

To produce horizontal wrinkles in the forehead, which of the following muscles is involved?

A)

the medial pterygoid
B)

the zygomaticus major
C)

the frontal belly of the epicranius
D)

the temporalis

C) the frontal belly of the epicranius

A cute, little curly haired child is sitting behind you in church. You turn around for a moment and she sticks her tongue out at you. Which tongue muscle did she use?

A)

orbicularis oris
B)

stylohyoid
C)

hyoglossus
D)

genioglossus

D) genioglossus

Which group of muscles flexes and rotates the neck?

A)

the scalenes
B)

the iliocostalis
C)

the spinalis
D)

the splenius

A) the scalenes

Which of the following muscles is involved in crossing one leg over the other while in a sitting position?

A)

the gastrocnemius
B)

the sartorius
C)

all of the hamstrings
D)

the quadriceps femoris

B) the sartorius

Which of the following muscles inserts by the calcaneal tendon?

A)

the semitendinosus
B)

the sartorius
C)

the tibialis anterior
D)

the gastrocnemius

D) the gastrocnemius

If a lever operates at a mechanical disadvantage, it means that the ________.

A)

load is far from the fulcrum and the effort is applied near the fulcrum
B)

lever system is useless
C)

effort is farther than the load from the fulcrum
D)

load is near the fulcrum and the effort is at the distal end

A) load is far from the fulcrum and the effort is applies near the fulcrom

Which of the following does not compress the abdomen?

A)

internal oblique
B)

external oblique
C)

transversus abdominis
D)

coccygeus

D) coccygeus

A muscle group that works with and assists the action of a prime mover is a(n) ________.

A)

antagonist
B)

fixator
C)

synergist
D)

protagonist

C) synergist

A muscle located on the dorsal side of the body is the ________.

A)

pectoralis minor
B)

rectus femoris
C)

rectus abdominis
D)

infraspinatus

D) infraspinatus

Which of the following is not a member of the hamstrings?

A)

gracilis
B)

semitendinosus
C)

semimembranosus
D)

biceps femoris

A) gracilis

A nursing infant develops a powerful sucking muscle that adults also use for whistling called the ________.

A)

platysma
B)

masseter
C)

zygomaticus
D)

buccinator

D) buccinator

Spasms of this straplike muscle often result in wryneck or torticollis.

A)

serratus anterior
B)

zygomaticus
C)

platysma
D)

sternocleidomastoid

D) sternocleidomastoid

Which generalization concerning movement by skeletal muscles is not true?

A)

Muscles produce movement by pulling on bones.

B)

The bones serve as levers.

C)

During contraction the two articulating bones move equally.

D)

The movements produced may be of graded intensity.

C) During contraction the two articulating bones move equally.

Which of these is not a way of classifying muscles?

A)

muscle location
B)

the type of muscle fibers
C)

the type of action they cause
D)

muscle shape

B) the type of muscle fibers

In flexing the forearm at the elbow, the ________.

A)

biceps brachii acts as antagonist
B)

triceps brachii acts as antagonist
C)

brachioradialis acts as antagonist
D)

coracobrachialis acts as antagonist

B) triceps brachii acts as antagonist

Orbicularis oris ________.

A)

closes, purses, and protrudes the lips
B)

pulls the lower lip down and back
C)

draws the eyebrows together
D)

allows blinking, squinting, and various other protective mechanisms for the eye

A) closes, purses and protrudes the lips

In a pennate muscle pattern ________.

A)

muscles appear to be straplike
B)

there is a narrow origin diverging to a broad insertion
C)

there is a broad origin and fascicles converge toward a single tendon
D)

muscles look like a feather

D) the muscles look like a feather

The extensor digitorum longus has which type of fascicle arrangement?

A)

circular
B)

convergent
C)

unipennate
D)

bipennate

C) unipennate

Tennis players often complain about pain in the arm (forearm) that swings the racquet. What muscle is usually strained under these conditions?

A)

the triceps brachii
B)

the anconeus
C)

the brachioradialis
D)

the flexor digitorum profundus

C) the brachioradialis

To exhale forcibly, one would contract the:

A)

diaphragm alone.

B)

internal intercostals and diaphragm.

C)

external intercostals and diaphragm.

D)

rectus abdominis and diaphragm.

B) internal intercostals and diaphragm.

Paralysis of which of the following would make an individual unable to flex the thigh?

A)

biceps
B)

vastus medialis
C)

soleus
D)

iliopsoas and rectus femoris

D) iliopsoas and rectus femoris

First-class levers ________.

A)

have load at one end of the lever, fulcrum at the other, and effort applied somewhere in the middle
B)

are typified by tweezers or forceps
C)

in the body can operate at a mechanical advantage or mechanical disadvantage, depending on specific location
D)

are the type found in the joints forming the ball of the foot as used in raising the body on the toes

C) in the body can operate at a mechanical advantage or mechanical disadvantage, depending on specific location

What do geniohyoid, hyoglossus, and stylohyoid have in common?

A)

All names reflect direction of muscle fibers.

B)

Each acts synergistically to elevate the jaw.

C)

All act on the tongue.

D)

All names indicate the relative size of the muscle.

C) they all act on the tongue

Adductor magnus, adductor longus, and adductor brevis are parts of a large muscle mass of the ________.

A)

lateral rotators
B)

anterior compartment of the thigh
C)

posterior muscle group of the thigh
D)

medial compartment of the thigh

D) medial compartment of the thigh

Which of the following muscles is involved in abduction?

A)

deltoid
B)

subscapularis
C)

teres major
D)

latissimus dorsi

A) deltoid

Which of the following muscles is a flexor of the thigh?

A)

tibialis posterior
B)

vastus lateralis
C)

adductor magnus
D)

gluteus maximus

C) adductor magnus

Which of the following muscles is involved in inversion at the ankle joint?

A)

tibialis anterior
B)

extensor digitorum longus
C)

peroneus tertius
D)

peroneus longus

A)

tibialis anterior

Which of the following muscles serves as a common intramuscular injection site, particularly in infants?

A)

the vastus intermedius
B)

the vastus medialis
C)

rectus femoris
D)

the vastus lateralis

D) the vastus lateralis

Paralysis of which of the following would make an individual unable to flex the knee?

A)

hamstring muscles
B)

gluteal muscles
C)

brachioradialis
D)

soleus

A) hamstring musles

Which of the following muscles does not act in plantar flexion?

A)

popliteus
B)

tibialis posterior
C)

flexor digitorum longus
D)

gastrocnemius and soleus

A) popliteus

________ is a powerful forearm extensor.

Triceps brachii

The ________ is known as the boxer muscle.

serratus anterior

The ________ runs deep to the external oblique.

external oblique

The ________ helps keep food between the grinding surfaces of the teeth during chewing.

buccinator

________ draws the corners of the mouth downward as in expressing horror.

platysma

________ is the main chewing muscle.

masseter

The pectoralis major has a ________ arrangement of fascicles.

convergent

________ is the abnormal protrusion of the small intestine through a weak point in the muscle of the abdominal wall.

hernia

The quadriceps femoris is composed of three vastus muscles and the ________.

rectus femoris

________ extends the great toe.

Extensor hallucis longus

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