Exam 2 Flashcards

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d

The correct order of the structures of the motor neuron is:
A. the myelin sheath, dendrites, axon, terminal branches of the axon.
B. the dendrites, neuron, terminal branches of the axon, and axon.
C. the terminal branches of the axon, axon, dendrites, cell body.
D. dendrites, the cell body, axon, terminal branches of the axon.

a

A drug that inhibits a neurotransmitter's release is called a(n):
A. antagonist.
B. opiate.
C. agonist.
D. glutamate.

b

Depressed mood states are linked to ________ levels of serotonin and ________ levels of norepinephrine.
A. high; high
B. low; low
C. high; low
D. low; high

d

The largest number of neurons within the brain and spinal cord are responsible for the central nervous system's complex internal communications and intervene between inputs and outputs. These are the:
A. sensory neurons.
B. ionic neurons.
C. motor neurons.
D. interneurons.

b

After being startled awake in the middle of the night, it turns out the noise the woman heard was the closet rod breaking from the weight of her winter coats. Knowing that, she begins to calm down and her heart stops racing. Clearly her _____________ has been activated.
A. sympathetic nervous system
B. parasympathetic nervous system
C. adrenal system
D. central nervous system

c

The work groups that neurons cluster into are known as:
A. interneurons.
B. nerves.
C. neural networks.
D. genomes.

a

The endocrine system is made up of _____________ that secrete:
A. glands; hormones.
B. neurons; neurotransmitters.
C. axons; sodium ions.
D. dopamine pathways; dopamine.

b

In terms of their length of effect, endocrine messages are to ____________ as neural messages are to:
A. puppy love; 50-year marriages.
B. marble sculptures; sand castles.
C. wood; plastic.
D. clouds; rain.

a

This part of the endocrine system regulates the level of sugar in the blood.
A. pancreas
B. adrenal gland
C. thyroid gland
D. pituitary gland

a

In 1949, Moruzzi and Magoun severed a cat's _____________ from higher brain regions; the cat lapsed into a permanent coma.
A. reticular formation
B. cerebellum
C. medulla
D. thalamus

d

The ______________ is to sensory input as an old-fashioned switchboard was to telephone calls.
A. amygdala
B. reticular formation
C. cortex
D. thalamus

b

This technique reveals blood flow and brain functioning as well as brain structure through a special application of another neuroimaging technique.
A. positron emission tomography (PET)
B. functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
C. electroencephalogram (EEG)
D. electrocardiogram (EKG)

c

Those who suffer from schizophrenia have, amongst other things, an excess of dopamine. Therefore, medications used to treat this disorder are dopamine:
A. agonists.
B. pessimists.
C. antagonists.
D. protagonists.

a

Neurotransmitter is to _____________ as neural receptor site is to:
A. key; lock.
B. doorway; hall.
C. dog; cat.
D. telephone; Morse code.

a

Most of the signals neurons receive are ___________; others are the opposite, or:
A. excitatory, inhibitory.
B. inhibitory, excitatory.
C. polarizing, depolarizing.
D. excitatory, refractory.

d

A medical equipment company is thinking of expanding by developing lie-detection machines, which measure perspiration, cardiovascular, respiration changes. On which of the following systems should their research focus?
A. the central nervous system
B. the biopharmacological system
C. the adrenal system
D. the sympathetic nervous system

d

This part of your nervous system helps you to conserve energy as it calms you down after a stressful event.
A. autonomic
B. somatic
C. sympathetic
D. parasympathetic

a

This nervous system stimulates ejaculation in the male.
A. sympathetic
B. parasympathetic
C. autonomic
D. somatic

d

Your boss tells you some news that disturbs you, but a phone call from your spouse distracts you. After you get off the phone, you have a lingering feeling that something is not quite right, but you cannot pinpoint what it is. It is likely you are reacting to the continued effect of:
A. serotonin.
B. neurotransmitters.
C. action potentials.
D. hormones.

a

This part of the endocrine system regulates the level of sugar in the blood.
A. pancreas
B. pituitary gland
C. thyroid gland
D. adrenal gland

a

This endocrine gland secretes many different hormones, some of which affect other glands.
A. the pituitary gland
B. the adrenal gland
C. the thyroid gland
D. the parathyroid gland

b

The successful functioning of children who have experienced the surgical removal of an entire cerebral hemisphere best illustrates the value of:
A. lateralism.
B. plasticity.
C. phrenology.
D. ACh antagonists.

d

Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in speaking?
A. temporal
B. occipital
C. parietal
D. frontal

b

If a researcher electrically stimulates the ______________ in an animal, the animal will immediately wake up and be alert.
A. thalamus
B. reticular formation
C. hippocampus
D. hypothalamus

d

You are watching your favorite television program and you see a commercial for a new medication. It states that the medication can alleviate depression. "Since depression is a chemical imbalance, new Venlafaxine extended release can help with mood, sleep, arousal, and alertness by working on the two key neurotransmitters involved in depression." These two neurotransmitters are:
A. serotonin and ACh.
B. serotonin and GABA.
C. serotonin and dopamine.
D. serotonin and norepinephrine.

d

Milton has been having considerable trouble with his short-term memory. His family has noticed a number of mistakes Milton has been making (e.g., leaving doors unlocked, getting lost in the neighborhood, forgetting family member's names). It appears that the _____________ producing neurons are deteriorating.
A. serotonin
B. MSG
C. GABA
D. ACh

b

Most of the signals neurons receive are ___________; others are the opposite, or:
A. excitatory, refractory.
B. excitatory, inhibitory.
C. inhibitory, excitatory.
D. polarizing, depolarizing.

d

Leiko is paralyzed below the waist following an accident. Though she does not respond to erotic images, she does experience an increase in vaginal lubrication in response to genital stimulation. Leiko has most clearly suffered damage to her:
A. sensory cortex
B. endocrine system
C. limbic system
D. spinal cord

b

One can think of Alzheimer's disease as the deterioration and breakdown of the connections known as:
A. neural bridges.
B. neural networks.
C. neural neighborhoods.
D. neural branches.

d

If the top of the spinal cord is severed, a person would:
A. continue to feel pleasure.
B. continue to feel pain.
C. continue to feel pleasure but NOT pain.
D. exhibit a knee-jerk reflex response without feeling the tap.

a

If a two-year-old boy's pituitary gland is not functioning correctly, what might be the consequences?
A. His physical growth might be affected.
B. His serotonin levels might drop.
C. His neural networks might slow down.
D. Neural transmission in his brain might slow down considerably.

a

Which of the following chemical messengers is both a neurotransmitter and a hormone?
A. norepinephrine
B. serotonin
C. acetylcholine
D. dopamine

d

"Neurotransmitter" is to "synaptic gap" as "hormone" is to:
A. gland.
B. hypothalamus.
C. endocrine system.
D. bloodstream.

c

After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth, coordinated manner. It is likely that she has suffered damage to her:
A. angular gyrus
B. corpus callosum
C. cerebellum
D. amygdala

a

Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in speaking?
A. frontal
B. occipital
C. temporal
D. parietal

b

If a researcher is interested in measuring both the structure and function of the brain, which of the following techniques would you recommend?
A. electroencephalogram (EEG)
B. functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
C. precise lesioning
D. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

b

This bushy, branching extension of a neuron receives messages and conducts impulses toward the cell body.
A. myelin sheath
B. dendrite
C. axon
D. axon terminal

b

Information processing in the body involves neurons communicating with each other at their:
A. cell bodies.
B. synapses.
C. neurons.
D. neural impulses.

a

This part of the peripheral nervous system controls the voluntary movements of the skeletal muscles.
A. somatic
B. sympathetic
C. association areas
D. autonomic

d

In stressful situations, the sympathetic nervous system ___________ glucose (blood sugar) levels and ___________ the pupils of the eyes.
A. raises; contracts
B. lowers; contracts
C. lowers; dilates
D. raises; dilates

c

This part of the peripheral nervous system controls the self-regulated action of the internal organs and glands.
A. somatic
B. sympathetic
C. autonomic
D. association areas

b

Compared to messages delivered by the nervous system, messages delivered by the endocrine system are:
A. speedier but less powerful.
B. slower to arrive and longer lasting.
C. more limited in their effects.
D. less likely to activate receptors at a distance.

c

The pituitary gland is located in the:
A. kidneys.
B. throat.
C. brain.
D. hypothalamus.

d

The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine __________ blood pressure and __________ blood sugar levels.
A. lowers; lowers
B. raises; lowers
C. lowers; raises
D. raises; raises

a

This technique produces computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue.
A. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
B. electrocardiogram (EKG)
C. positron emission tomography (PET)
D. electroencephalogram (EEG)

d

Dr. Render is a neuropsychologist who works with post-surgical patients who have had surgery to sever their corpus callosums (to reduce severe seizures). When she presents the word "SAL-TED" to one patient, "SAL" transmits to his left visual field and "TED" to his right visual field. She then asks him to tell her what he saw. What does this patient say?
A. sal
B. salted
C. detlas
D. ted

a

The successful functioning of children who have experienced the surgical removal of an entire cerebral hemisphere best illustrates the value of:
A. plasticity.
B. phrenology.
C. lateralism.
D. ACh antagonists.

b

Dendrites transmit messages ___________ the cell body and axon transmit messages ___________ the cell body.
A. away from; toward
B. toward; away from
C. toward; toward
D. away from; away from

d

The all-or-none response of a neuron is similar to:
A. a switch that never fails to light.
B. a dimmer switch that can provide a wide range of light.
C. a switch that cannot overload the circuits.
D. a light switch that only has two positions—on and off.

c

The "decision" as to whether a neuron fires or not can be described as most similar to:
A. a parliamentarian debate.
B. an independent election.
C. the majority rules.
D. the underdog wins.

b

In stressful situations, the sympathetic nervous system ___________ glucose (blood sugar) levels and ___________ the pupils of the eyes.
A. lowers; contracts
B. raises; dilates
C. raises; contracts
D. lowers; dilates

a

This part of your nervous system helps you to conserve energy as it calms you down after a stressful event.
A. parasympathetic
B. sympathetic
C. autonomic
D. somatic

b

The pituitary gland is located in the:
A. throat.
B. brain.
C. kidneys.
D. hypothalamus.

a

This endocrine gland secretes many different hormones, some of which affect other glands.
A. the pituitary gland
B. the parathyroid gland
C. the thyroid gland
D. the adrenal gland

d

After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth, coordinated manner. It is likely that she has suffered damage to her:
A. amygdala
B. angular gyrus
C. corpus callosum
D. cerebellum

a

The ____________ is responsible for heartbeat and breathing.
A. medulla
B. reticular formation
C. cerebellum
D. thalamus

c

Axons are to ______________ as dendrites are to:
A. stop signs; traffic signals.
B. primary reinforcement; secondary reinforcement.
C. speaking; hearing.
D. action potential; neurons.

b

An automatic reflex such as a knee jerk or withdrawing a hand from a flame involves:
A. the sympathetic nervous system.
B. the spinal cord.
C. the autonomic nervous system.
D. the spinal cord and brain.

a

Dr. Spanos is interested in studying how the approximately 400 trillion synapses of an adult brain are organized into an information-processing system. He should consider studying which of the following topics?
A. neural networks
B. neural impulses
C. neurotransmitters
D. action potential

b

Information from the peripheral nervous system is carried to the central nervous system by neural "cables" called:
A. interneurons.
B. nerves.
C. neural networks.
D. reflex pathways.

a

The _______________ triggers ovaries and testes to release sex hormones.
A. pituitary gland
B. pancreas
C. thyroid gland
D. somatic nervous system

d

A firefighter wakes in the middle of the night to the sound of an alarm. It is likely that her ______________ have released epinephrine and norepinephrine.
A. neural networks
B. somatic and parasympathetic nervous systems
C. reflex pathways
D. adrenal glands

d

These chemical messengers are mostly manufactured by the endocrine glands, and they can influence our interest in sex, food, and aggression.
A. GABA
B. dopamine
C. sodium ions
D. hormones

d

Research with split-brain patients led Michael Gazzaniga to conclude that the _____________ typically constructs the theories people offer to explain their own behaviors.
A. right cerebral hemisphere
B. autonomic nervous system
C. somatic nervous system
D. left cerebral hemisphere

d

Which of the following muscles are controlled by the somatic nervous system?
A. stomach muscles involved in digestion
B. muscles that dilate and contract pupils
C. muscles that contract and relax the bladder
D. skeletal muscles, such as muscles of the arm and hand

a

The peripheral nervous system includes the _______________ that carry/carries messages from the body to the central nervous system.
A. sensory neurons
B. association areas
C. the spinal cord
D. the reticular formation

a

"Neurotransmitter" is to "synaptic gap" as "hormone" is to:
A. bloodstream.
B. endocrine system.
C. hypothalamus.
D. gland.

c

An example of the interaction of the nervous and endocrine systems can be seen in our response to danger. The _______________ orders the adrenal glands to release the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine, which act to provide a surge of energy.
A. somatic nervous system
B. central nervous system
C. autonomic nervous system
D. hypothalamus

c

Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in vision?
A. parietal
B. temporal
C. occipital
D. frontal

d

The ____________ is responsible for heartbeat and breathing.
A. reticular formation
B. thalamus
C. cerebellum
D. medulla

d

While used by South American Indians for hunting, __________ was once briefly used in surgical suites because of its ACh blocking properties.
A. dopamine
B. norepinephrine
C. botulin
D. curare

b

The parasympathetic nervous system is to _______________ as the sympathetic nervous system is to:
A. cats; dogs.
B. energy conservation; energy consumption.
C. gas-guzzling automobiles; hybrid automobiles.
D. sunrise; sunset.

c

People who engage in extreme sports often do this to feel the rush of epinephrine and norepinephrine. This rush comes from the:
A. somatic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
B. reflex pathways.
C. adrenal glands.
D. neural networks.

c

Dr. Snell studies the part of the brain that is active when people are lying. She asks half of her participants to tell the truth about an event from their childhoods and half to tell a lie about an event from their childhoods. Which of the following brain imaging techniques should she use to detect brain areas that are active when the participants are lying?
A. electroencephalogram (EEG)
B. polygraph (lie detector machine)
C. functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
D. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

c

In his research on the limbic system, Dr. Harrington electrically stimulates the ____________ of cats and then measures their rage and fear reactions.
A. thalamus
B. medulla
C. amygdala
D. reticular formation

d

You have been asked to give a brief lecture on neurons and action potential to a group of high school students. Which of the following would you use as a model to describe the chemistry-to-electricity process of the action potential?
A. It is similar to the way lightning generates electricity.
B. It is similar to the way windmills generate electricity.
C. It is similar to the way waterfalls can generate electricity.
D. It is similar to the way batteries generate electricity.

a

You are babysitting your two-year-old nephew for the first time. While your back is turned, he touches his index finger to the pan you just took out of the oven. He pulls his finger away quickly, and a few seconds later begins to scream. Why is his screaming delayed in comparison to pulling away his finger?
A. The hand-withdrawal reflex involves only the spinal cord, so it takes time before the information about pain reaches the brain.
B. He knew he would get in trouble if he started screaming, so he held it in as long as he could.
C. It takes longer to sense something than to understand the consequences of an action.
D. His parasympathetic system was activated to arouse him, which stifled his vocal reaction.

c

Whenever you turn the pages of a book, use your pen to take notes, or raise your hand, you know that this is possible due to your:
A. sympathetic nervous system.
B. parasympathetic nervous system.
C. somatic nervous system.
D. autonomic nervous system.

c

Dr. Paivio studies the ways in which the endocrine system and the nervous system are similar. Which of the following might he conclude?
A. Both systems are located in the brain stem.
B. The speed of their message transmission is similar.
C. Both systems secrete molecules that activate receptors elsewhere.
D. Both systems are located in the spinal cord.

d

Ralph was involved in a bar fight and sustained a blow to the back of the head from a beer bottle. He was dazed and could not see for about 2 minutes. Which lobe was affected?
A. frontal
B. parietal
C. temporal
D. occipital

a

You look down while sitting at the top of the Ferris wheel. You immediately feel your heart start to pound and you simultaneously experience fear. Which of the following theories best explains this emotional response?
A. Cannon-Bard theory
B. two-factor theory
C. Schacter-Singer theory
D. James-Lange theory

d

Alone in the woods, you hear a noise. You think you see a bear coming towards you. Your heart starts pounding and, at the same time, you realize you are afraid. This sequence of events is best explained by which theory of emotion?
A. two-factor theory
B. Schacter-Singer theory
C. James-Lange theory
D. Cannon-Bard theory

a

To experience an emotion, a person must be physically aroused and cognitively label that arousal. This theory of emotion was suggested by:
A. Schacter and Singer
B. Cannon and Bard
C. Watson and Rayner
D. James and Lange

b

Exuberant infants and alert, energetic adults are especially likely to show high levels of brain activity in the:
A. sensory cortex.
B. left frontal lobe.
C. limbic system.
D. cerebellum.

c

Highly emotional people are intense partly because of their interpretations. They may ______________ their experiences by blowing single incidents out of proportion.
A. conceptualize
B. personalize
C. generalize
D. rationalize

a

A lie detector is used to monitor a person's:
A. respiration.
B. insulin levels.
C. brain activity.
D. stomach contraction.

b

If people wrinkle their noses in disgust when presented with a strange-looking food, they are likely to experience an increasingly intense emotional aversion to the food. This best illustrates the:
A. relative deprivation principle.
B. facial feedback effect.
C. Cannon-Bard theory.
D. feel-good, do-good phenomenon.

a

Quite simply, ______________ is identification with others and the ability to imagine walking in their shoes.
A. empathy
B. sympathy
C. relationality
D. apathy

a

By exposing different parts of emotion-laden faces, researchers found that we detect anger mostly from the _________ and happiness mostly from the _________.
A. eyes; mouth
B. eyes; eyes
C. mouth; mouth
D. mouth; eyes

a

Ariana believes that yelling at her husband serves to calm her feelings of anger toward him. Her belief is most clearly consistent with:
A. catharsis.
B. subjective well-being.
C. the relative deprivation principle.
D. the adaptation-level principle.

d

After receiving exciting news about his grandson's healthy birth, Mr. Haney was easily persuaded to contribute a generous sum of money to a neighborhood church. This best illustrates:
A. catharsis.
B. the two-factor theory.
C. adaptation-level phenomenon.
D. feel-good, do-good phenomenon.

a

People have a tendency to judge stimuli relative to those previously experienced. For example, if a man's current income level increases, he feels an initial surge of pleasure. However, as he adapts to that income level, he comes to consider it normal. He then requires something better to feel another surge of happiness. This is known as:
A. the adaptation-level phenomenon.
B. relative deprivation.
C. subjective well-being.
D. the feel-good-do-good phenomenon.

b

Type A personality is to Type B personality as ____________ is to ____________.
A. obesity; cancer
B. irritable; calm
C. epinephrine; norepinephrine
D. time-conscious; competitive

b

This subfield of alternative medicine employs plant and plant products from folk medicine traditions for pharmacological use.
A. pharmacological and biological treatments
B. herbal remedies
C. manual healing
D. diet, nutrition, lifestyle changes

a

B-lymphocytes are formed in the:
A. bone marrow.
B. adrenal gland.
C. thyroid.
D. brainstem.

d

People tend to use emotion-focused, rather than problem-focused, coping strategies when they:
A. enter the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome.
B. deal with the stress of daily hassles, such as obnoxious cell-phone talkers.
C. appraise a stressful event as a challenge rather than a threat.
D. believe they cannot change a stressful situation.

c

In a senior writing seminar, students were asked to write a brief autobiography. Sixty years later, if a researcher were to analyze these autobiographies, what would be the most likely outcome in terms of their longevity (i.e., which group is likely to live an average of 7 years longer)?
A. We can not predict longevity on the basis of emotions.
B. those who had expressed anger and sorrow in their autobiographies
C. those who had expressed happiness, love, and other positive feelings in their autobiographies
D. those who had expressed narcissism in their autobiographies

a

________________ is to addressing work problems with a colleague as ________________ is to talking to your hair stylist about all of the problems at work.
A. Problem-focused coping; emotion-focused coping
B. Perceived control; unperceived control
C. Emotion-focused coping; problem-focused coping
D. Unperceived control; perceived control

b

Alone in the woods, you hear a noise. You think you see a bear coming towards you. Your heart starts pounding and then, a moment later, you realize how frightened you are. This sequence of events is best explained by which theory of emotion?
A. two-factor theory
B. James-Lange theory
C. Schacter-Singer theory
D. Cannon-Bard theory

c

When Greg's autonomic nervous system was aroused, he misinterpreted the harmless symptoms as indicators of an impending heart attack. This misinterpretation caused him an unusually intense level of fear. His emotional response is best understood in terms of the:
A. James-Lange theory
B. catharsis hypothesis
C. two-factor theory
D. relative deprivation principle

d

You look down while sitting at the top of the Ferris wheel. You immediately feel your heart start to pound and you simultaneously experience fear. Which of the following theories best explains this emotional response?
A. Schacter-Singer theory
B. James-Lange theory
C. two-factor theory
D. Cannon-Bard theory

a

The sympathetic nervous system is to ____________ as the parasympathetic nervous system is to ____________.
A. arousal; calming
B. calming; arousal
C. secretion of stress hormones; increase in epinephrine
D. pupil enlargement; pupil dilation

b

Nina was almost hit by a bus. However, she is okay and her parasympathetic system is responding accordingly. It is:
A. slowing her heart rate and inhibiting her digestion.
B. slowing her heart rate and activating her digestion.
C. slowing her heart rate and increasing secretion of stress hormones.
D. This is a trick question. The sympathetic nervous system is actually responsible for calming Nina.

c

In a positive mood, a person will experience increased activity in her:
A. right hemisphere.
B. right frontal lobe.
C. left frontal lobe.
D. amygdala.

c

It has been suggested that raised eyebrows are universally associated with a surprised expression because they effectively widen the eyes to enhance the perception of unexpected circumstances. This suggestion best illustrates the:
A. adaptation-level phenomenon.
B. two-factor theory.
C. evolutionary perspective.
D. the spillover effect.

c

Selena is working on a project that will force her to read people's emotional cues. She needs a partner, and thinks her best choice would be to find a female partner. Which research finding supports this choice?
A. Women's nonverbal sensitivity gives them an edge when it comes to spotting lies.
B. Women surpass men at reading people's emotional cues.
C. All of these research finding support Selena's choice of a female partner.
D. Looking at photos of two people, women are better able to discern who is the supervisor.

c

Women appear to be more sensitive to nonverbal cues than men. Which of the following research findings support this?
A. Women have an edge over men in spotting lies.
B. Women surpass men at reading emotional cues.
C. Research has found all of these things are true.
D. Women surpass men in determining whether a male-female couple is genuinely romantic or phony.

b

People tend to ___________ the long-term emotional impact of sustaining a paralyzing physical injury and they tend to ___________ the long-term emotional impact of acquiring wealth.
A. overestimate; underestimate
B. overestimate; overestimate
C. underestimate; overestimate
D. underestimate; underestimate

c

Luciano believes that the best way to get over his anger toward his high school teacher is to scream shameful profanities while hitting a punching bag. His belief is best explained by:
A. adaptation-level phenomenon.
B. relative deprivation principle.
C. catharsis.
D. guilty knowledge test.

a

Researchers use a measure of ____________ to determine a person's self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life.
A. subjective well-being
B. objective well-being
C. valence
D. catharsis

c

Jerome has a Type B personality and Francis has a Type A personality. Francis is more likely to experience ________________ than is Jerome.
A. enlargement of the thymus gland
B. reduced cortisol levels
C. atherosclerosis
D. increased levels of lymphocytes

d

Anders has just received devastating news about the copy shop he owns. Things seem very bleak because a nationally-known competitor is moving in on the same block. Anders has many debts to pay off and his wife is expecting their fourth child. When he hears the bad news, his heart rate zooms and he feels faint, like he is in shock. According to Seyle, he is:
A. in Phase 4, unable to recover.
B. in Phase 3, in a state of exhaustion.
C. in Phase 2, in a state of resistance.
D. in Phase 1, experiencing an alarm reaction.

a

People who are competitive, super-motivated, impatient, and verbally aggressive are likely to be classified as:
A. Type A.
B. creative.
C. Type B.
D. Type D.

a

Derek's psychologist has asked him to write about a personal trauma he experienced as a child. How might this writing exercise influence his health?
A. He will have fewer health problems in the coming months.
B. He will likely lose weight.
C. He will initially have more health problems due to exposing his traumatic experience.
D. His life will not change, since expressing yourself in writing has NOT been shown to be connected to health.

c

Shane's doctor suggests that he begin an aerobic exercise program in addition to the psychotherapy for his depression. As a result, Shane will experience all of the following EXCEPT that he will:
A. be able to manage stressful life events better.
B. he will likely lose weight and feel less fatigued.
C. he will become more depressed from the stress of the exercise program.
D. he will feel more vigor.

d

________________ is to addressing work problems with a colleague as ________________ is to talking to your hair stylist about all of the problems at work.
A. Emotion-focused coping; problem-focused coping
B. Perceived control; unperceived control
C. Unperceived control; perceived control
D. Problem-focused coping; emotion-focused coping

b

Alone in the woods, you hear a noise. You think you see a bear coming towards you. Your heart starts pounding and then, a moment later, you realize how frightened you are. This sequence of events is best explained by which theory of emotion?
A. Schacter-Singer theory
B. James-Lange theory
C. Cannon-Bard theory
D. two-factor theory

d

The James-Lange theory of emotion suggests that our experience of emotion:
A. can not be measured.
B. is our subjective experience of emotion.
C. is our cognitive label of arousal.
D. is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.

b

_____________ is an organism's response to a stimulus that includes a mixture of physiological, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience.
A. Aphasia
B. Emotion
C. Absolute threshold
D. A Reflex

c

Nikolas is suspected of a crime and is asked to take a polygraph test. Although he is innocent, what are the chances that he will be falsely accused?
A. These tests err about one-half of the time.
B. These tests are rarely wrong, especially if the person is innocent.
C. These tests err about one-third of the time.
D. These tests err about two-thirds of the time.

c

If people who are aroused by watching rock videos are then insulted, their feelings of anger will be greater than those of people who have been similarly provoked but were not previously aroused. This is best explained by the:
A. Cannon-Bard theory
B. relative deprivation principle
C. Schachter-Singer two-factor theory
D. catharsis hypothesis

a

The sympathetic nervous system is to ____________ as the parasympathetic nervous system is to ____________.
A. arousal; calming
B. secretion of stress hormones; increase in epinephrine
C. calming; arousal
D. pupil enlargement; pupil dilation

a

Quite simply, ______________ is identification with others and the ability to imagine walking in their shoes.
A. empathy
B. apathy
C. relationality
D. sympathy

b

She found that in over 125 studies of sensitivity to nonverbal cues, women generally surpass men at reading people's emotional cues.
A. LeDoux
B. Hall
C. Larsen
D. Zajonc

d

It has been suggested that raised eyebrows are universally associated with a surprised expression because they effectively widen the eyes to enhance the perception of unexpected circumstances. This suggestion best illustrates the:
A. the spillover effect.
B. adaptation-level phenomenon.
C. two-factor theory.
D. evolutionary perspective.

c

If you were to give advice about how to become happy and remain happy, which of the following pieces of advice would you offer?
A. Don't worry about personal contacts because close friends won't make you happy in the long run.
B. Focus on yourself and don't worry about those in need.
C. Give priority to close relationships and seek work and leisure activities that you find engaging.
D. Real, long-lasting happiness comes from financial success.

d

Loren is studying emotion in her psychology class, and is surprised to find out that in individualistic cultures _____________ is related to happiness; in communal cultures _____________ matters more.
A. high self-esteem; physical attractiveness
B. physical attractiveness; high self-esteem
C. educational levels; social acceptance
D. high self-esteem; social acceptance

d

People tend to ___________ the long-term emotional impact of sustaining a paralyzing physical injury and they tend to ___________ the long-term emotional impact of acquiring wealth.
A. underestimate; overestimate
B. overestimate; underestimate
C. underestimate; underestimate
D. overestimate; overestimate

a

These lymphocytes release antibodies that fight bacterial infections.
A. B-lymphocytes
B. T-lymphocytes
C. G-lymphocytes
D. L-lymphocytes

d

People who are easygoing, relaxed, and don't let things get to them are classified as:
A. Type A.
B. Type D.
C. creative.
D. Type B.

d

Reluctantly, you decide to take a long awaited trip to New Zealand. The thing that is most disturbing to you is that you must leave your pet monkey behind. There is a "pet hotel" in the city that has agreed to take him for you. Should you worry about him?
A. Yes. Monkeys under stress due to social disruptions tend to have increased lymphocyte production.
B. No. Monkeys love new social situations, and their immune systems are actually strengthened.
C. Not sure. No studies have been done examining social disruptions and monkey immune systems.
D. Yes. Monkeys under stress due to social disruptions have weakened immune systems.

d

Your father-in-law had a serious heart attack several weeks ago. You are concerned because he lives alone. After his heart attack, which of the following acquisitions would increase his odds of survival?
A. safety bars in his bathroom
B. a more reliable automobile
C. a bicycle helmet
D. a dog

a

Aerobic exercise ____________ the body's production of serotonin and ____________ its production of the endorphins.
A. increases; increases
B. decreases; decreases
C. decreases; increases
D. increases; decreases

d

Rachel is a very optimistic young woman. She usually expects the best, even in uncertain times. Her college roommate, Leah, is pessimistic and is always expecting the worst. For these two women, what do you predict would happen during finals week?
A. The two of them will have the same degree of fatigue and coughing.
B. Leah will have less fatigue and fewer coughs than will Rachel.
C. Leah will have less aches and pains than will Rachel.
D. Rachel will have less fatigue and fewer coughs than will Leah.

b

Which theory of emotion emphasizes the simultaneous experience of body response and emotional feeling?
A. two-factor theory
B. Cannon-Bard theory
C. James-Lange theory
D. valence theory

c

Emotions consist of which of the following components?
A. physiological reactions
B. behavioral expressions
C. Emotions consist of all of these things.
D. conscious feelings

d

You look down while sitting at the top of the Ferris wheel. You immediately feel your heart start to pound. You are confused by this response until you remember your last experience on a Ferris wheel. During that experience, the wind started to blow, the seats began to rock, and you thought you were going to die. You realize your heart is pounding because you are afraid. Which of the following theories best explains this sequence of events?
A. James-Lange theory
B. Cannon-Bard theory
C. Watson-Rayner theory
D. two-factor theory

d

The arousal that lingers after an intense argument may intensify sexual passion. This best illustrates:
A. adaptation-level phenomenon.
B. feel-good, do-good phenomenon.
C. relative deprivation.
D. spillover effect.

d

In a positive mood, a person will experience increased activity in her:
A. right frontal lobe.
B. amygdala.
C. right hemisphere.
D. left frontal lobe.

b

_________________ have demonstrated that some emotional responses involve no conscious thinking.
A. Lazarus and LeDoux
B. Zajonc and LeDoux
C. Cannon and Forbes
D. Forbes and Zajonc

c

If you mimic another person's facial expressions of emotion, you probably will feel increasing empathy for that person. This is best explained in terms of the:
A. catharsis hypothesis
B. feel-good, do-good phenomenon
C. behavior feedback phenomenon
D. relative deprivation principle

b

Women appear to be more sensitive to nonverbal cues than men. Which of the following research findings support this?
A. Women surpass men at reading emotional cues.
B. Research has found all of these things are true.
C. Women have an edge over men in spotting lies.
D. Women surpass men in determining whether a male-female couple is genuinely romantic or phony.

c

You are excited to be studying developmental psychology in China. You know that children's facial expressions are universal and that children do all of the following EXCEPT:
A. cry when distressed.
B. shake their heads when defiant.
C. fidget when they are sad.
D. smile when they are happy.

d

Professor Crane was ecstatic when he learned that his research study was approved for publication. But, his joyful feelings quickly dissipated when he heard his colleague recently had three different research articles approved for publication. His declining emotional satisfaction is best explained by the:
A. facial feedback effect.
B. adaptation-level phenomenon.
C. James-Lange theory.
D. relative deprivation principle.

c

Researchers use a measure of ____________ to determine a person's self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life.
A. valence
B. objective well-being
C. subjective well-being
D. catharsis

c

After receiving approval to begin a long-awaited consulting project, Dr. Morris was much more inclined to contribute to the local giving campaign in town. This best illustrates:
A. the two-factor theory.
B. adaptation-level phenomenon.
C. feel-good, do-good phenomenon.
D. catharsis.

c

The correct order of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is:
A. an alarm reaction, exhaustion, resistance.
B. exhaustion, alarm reaction, resistance.
C. an alarm reaction, resistance, exhaustion.
D. resistance, exhaustion, alarm reaction.

d

People who are competitive, super-motivated, impatient, and verbally aggressive are likely to be classified as:
A. creative.
B. Type D.
C. Type B.
D. Type A.

b

This subfield of alternative medicine employs plant and plant products from folk medicine traditions for pharmacological use.
A. pharmacological and biological treatments
B. herbal remedies
C. manual healing
D. diet, nutrition, lifestyle changes

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